Shedding of the spike protein – a communicable prion disease risk?

There has been concern shared by un-CoV-vaccinated women about having experienced menstrual changes after being around people who had received a CoV injection. A breast fed baby died after the breastfeeding mother received a CoV injection – yes it might be random coincidence, but maybe it wasn’t, maybe something was transmitted in the mother’s breast milk.

The spike protein itself has been found to cause blood clotting problems as it can cause cells to fuse together into clumps – which would be clot like. Anemia and renal inflammation were found in a person who experienced health symptoms after a “Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine 24 days before“. (10)

This article is brief and is fact checking a claim that the Pfizer vaccine can be shed. It states that it cannot be transmitted between people: ‘Vaccine shedding’: No, COVID-19 vaccine does not spread by inhalation or skin contact (2) Well of course not, the vaccine includes a complex lipid coated nanoparticle encasing the mRNA – which of course can not be transmitted between people.

The real question, and concern is – can the spike protein be transmitted? The mRNA encodes for a slightly modified version of the spike protein, which would be produced by the person’s own cells – and have to be cleared by their detoxification system. Someone with poor detox function may have spike protein lingering in their blood plasma longer than someone with normal function.

The consensus appears to be that we are dealing with a spike protein transmission from injected to non-injected. The Pfizer documents in particular refer to a known chance that this could occur through skin to skin contact or through exhalation. Most of the folks I know seem to lean more toward exhalation.” (6)

Then if the spike is released on a person’s skin or in exhaled air, then if someone else was exposed to enough of it, there might be symptoms. Blood clotting or other changes might be due to the stickiness, hook like effect, that clumps cells together. Spike protein is a toxin. Please stop trusting the experiment.

Other risks might involve the prion like ability of the spike protein to cause other proteins to also misfold, which may then cause others to misfold in a cascading effect. Prion like concerns about the spike protein.

Blood changes and menstrual changes may occur because it was found that the gene carrying lipid nanoparticles collect within bone marrow and ovaries – so within the injected person there would be more spike production in the bone marrow and ovaries. In someone who was just nearby a CoV injected person, it is unknown what would happen to any spike protein that was inhaled or ingested. Intestinal symptoms may also be a result of spike protein attaching to ACE2 receptors on cells lining the intestines.

People may be getting different symptoms due to personal genetic and nutritional differences. They may also have received different batches of the experimental treatments. Pfizer was testing two variations of the spike protein: “BNT162b1 (variant RBP020.3): a modRNA encoding the RBD; BNT162b2 (variant RBP020.2): a modRNA encoding P2 S.” (1)

Things that may help protect the body internally from the spike protein.

Pomegranate peel – the inner can be eaten in small amounts the outer rind is really only useful in a long steeped tea/extract (20-30 minute gentle simmer).

Part of the benefit of pomegranate juice is due to a healthy microbiome changing some of the catechins into urolithin-A, a metabolite that can cross the blood brain barrier and reduce neuroinflammation & promote neurogenesis.

In summary, the alpha and beta diversity results indicate that the ability to convert UA from its precursors is significantly associated with a higher microbiome richness and overall composition.” (7)

Citrus peel – it is a source of quinine, (various links), quercetin, hesperidin, and other beneficial phytonutrients that may help protect against the spike protein or help with detoxification. It can also help reduce appetite, insulin resistance, and Metabolic Syndrome. Citrus peel bioflavonoids also help clear respiratory congestion and open airways; research has found it helpful for asthmatic symptoms. See: Citrus Peel, or previous posts – include some citrus & some pomegranate peel links.

Can’t find a pomegranate in season? – or have a citrus sensitivity? (MCAS/Histamine)- how about dandelion leaf tea then? (3, 4) Look for dandelions in a wild area or lawn where the owner doesn’t use herbicides or pesticides.

Dandelion plant in a garden bed, long serrated leaves that can become somewhat lettuce like if allowed to grow into a larger rosette of spikey leaves. Allowing the leaves to dry before making tea may increase the phytonutrient content. (9)

Pine needle tea may also be protective as a source of beneficial terpenes, vitamin C, and other phytonutrients. Indigenous Americans use cedar or other evergreen needles for a medicinal tea. Avoid over-heating or boiling as excess tannins are a diuretic and may be an irritant in quantity; and the oily terpenes may add too much of a taste like turpentine. (5) It is recommended to boil water, let it cool somewhat, and then steep the prepped pine needles for 15 minutes or overnight for a stronger tea. (5, 6) Please be cautious about harvesting evergreen needles from a tree you don’t own, or in a way that is overly destructive to the plant.

Social media posts have mentioned pine or evergreen needles as a source of suramin, and that is not true according to a plant scientist. * Who may be wrong according to this in depth article – simply there is a step in between in the extraction process. Suramin is refined from another pine oil product, rather than directly from the pine needles or pine oil. https://thefreedomarticles.com/covid-vaccine-antidote-pine-needle-tea-suramin-inhibits-dna-rna-replication/ update 6/23/2021

Safe species of evergreens are good source of vitamin C, and also “shikimic acid [which] has been shown to hold anti-sticky platelet properties as well… very helpful in protecting against blood clots!

So drink pine tea… we’ll have my own formula on offer at our store… its delicious! But, please be careful, as always, when sharing information about our plants. At best, it drives a frenzy of demand on the market for foraged herbal goods… sometimes that can damage our plant communities in more ways than you can imagine. At worst, the misinformation can damage our cause and feed the idea that those of us in alternative channels don’t actually do science.” (6)

Shikimic acid is also found in Star anise and is used in the production of the anti-viral medication Tamiflu. (6)

I found Star anise very helpful while I was sick with the respiratory symptoms of COVID19, just a few pieces broken off and added to a cup of tea was soothing for my throat. I seemed to become sensitized to it though and got similar symptoms from the blue spruce tea that I tried recently (urinary urgency, and over acidity possibly). Drink plenty of water following a medicinal tea as part of the benefit can be in peeing out an increased amount of toxins – but the kidneys need the water to be able to do that without endangering the delicate renal system.

  • *Caution is deserved with trying anything new. We are all different and also vary within our own state of health and aging. So pay attention to how you feel shortly after trying something and also the next day. Some side effects of dietary supplements can occur a few hours later or the next day.

Vitamin C is also critically important for healthy blood vessels and the prevention of excessive blood clotting.

Glycine is also needed for protecting blood vessel membranes and the blood brain barrier. It is used in collagen which is a fibrous protein that adds structure to the gelatin like fluid surrounding cells and within them. Glycine – good for our extracellular matrix & for immune protection against viral infection.

Glyphosate from Roundup herbicide use may be part of the health problems and varying risk. Biofuel made from biomass grown with Roundup type herbicides is likely causing glyphosate residue in the air surrounding the production facilities and in the areas where that type of biofuel is used by many of the cars and trucks. Glyphosate is also in the food supply in the foods grown with it, ingredients from those foods, or animal products from animals fed Roundup crops. It is an amino acid that can take the place of glycine and cause misfolding of protein chains. Avoiding sources and taking extra Dimethylglycine may be helpful for health. It is available as a refined amino acid powder. See: Glycine & glyphosate & misfolded proteins – Seneff article.

Niacin and other B vitamins help with the removal of cellular debris from the extracellular matrix or pathogens, or damaged or infected cells.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the neurodegenerative disease that led to physicist Stephen Hawkings having to use a wheelchair most of his adult life. ALS can involve misfolded proteins and begins with mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction can precede Alzheimer’s dementia and Parkinson’s Disease also, and both involve misfolded proteins.

Functional defects in mitochondria appear early before symptoms are manifested in ALS. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction is a promising therapeutic target in ALS. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Misfolded Proteins, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Neurodegenerative Diseases.” (8)

Our cellular debris removal system would remove misfolded proteins for reuse of the amino acids during good health. Niacin and the rest of the B vitamin team, magnesium, and vitamin C are needed for mitochondrial function.

Thiamin (B1) is commonly available in the diet but is needed in much greater quantity when an infection or inflammation is present. Deficiency typically is only common in cases where malnutrition is also present such as anorexia nervosa and chronic alcoholism. Higher dose supplements may be beneficial for chronic inflammatory conditions, such as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia, or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS). (12, 13) Benfotiamine is form that can be better absorbed across the blood brain barrier, (14), however standard forms of thiamine are also helpful.

As far as type, people in my survey reported good results with thiamine HCL, benfotiamine, and thiamine mononitrate but some said one worked rather than the others while some swore by more specialized thiamines. Details in the article [12].” – Jeffrey Lubell (@JeffLubell_C19)

Vitamin C is also needed in greater amounts than during typical health along with magnesium and many nutrients. When the body has to do more work – it needs more fuel and tools that are single use or limited use. Some nutrients can be recycled while others need to be replaced for each chemical reaction. Liposomal vitamin C is better absorbed than standard forms which are acidic and may cause diarrhea in larger amounts or for people who tend to have diarrhea easily (IBS/IBD). Excessive amount are simply passed through and will not be absorbed. Smaller doses of vitamin C are beneficial for a viral infection and very large doses would only be needed in case of cytokine storm, and then Intravenous Vitamin C therapy can help.

Magnesium sources, also protein and phospholipids:

We need transport carriers for the electrically active mineral or the body can not keep extra of the active form, and it will be excreted in the urine instead of being held available as back-stock in case of emergency trauma or emotional stress.

Phytonutrients in Foods

Phytonutrients are numerous in fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices, and many beverages made with plant products. Eating a rich variety of foods provides the body nutrients and phytonutrients that have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and immune system promoting benefits.

In Nepal many herbs and spices are used in daily cooking, including “turmeric, cumin, coriander, ginger, garlic, onion, pepper, corm, fenugreek, and chili,” and even more variety of spices may be used on special occasions, or in pickles and other home-made dishes. (9)

  • Garlic: Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, etc. (Batiha, 2020a)
  • Onion: Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic properties, beneficial against hyperlipidaemia and hypertension, etc. (Marrelli et al. 2019)
  • Black CuminBunium persi: Antibacterial, antifungal, anticonvulsant effects, antihistaminic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, , antioxidant, etc. (Hassanzadaza et al. 2018; Shah et al. 2019) * may be helpful for MCAS/Histamine excess
  • Black Cumin – Nigella sativa, Antidiabetic, analgesic, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, gastro-protective, etc. (Ahmad et al. 2013). *These seeds are used for Black Seed Oil, it may be helpful against SARS-CoV-2.
  • Chili: Antioxidant, cancer chemopreventive, antidiabetic, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial activities, pain relief, treatment of metabolic syndrome, etc. (Salehi et al. 2018)
  • Coriander: Antioxidant, diuretic, antidiabetic, sedative, antimicrobial, anti-convulsant, hypnotic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, etc. (Nadeem et al. 2013)
  • Cumin: Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, hypotensive, antiosteoporotic, tyrosinase inhibitory effects, etc. (Al-Snafi 2016; Gangadharappa et al. 2017).
  • Fennel: Antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antitumor, activities, etc. (Rather et al. 2016).
  • Flax: Antifungal, antioxidant, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antidiabetic, antithrombic, antiobesity activities, etc. (Goyal et al. 2014, Tavarini et al. 2019).
  • Licorice: Anticoagulant, expectorant, antidemulcent, antiulcer, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiviral, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, etc. (Batiha et al. 2020b). The whole root as an herbal preparation may have anti-viral benefits against SARS-CoV-2. It is an herb I happen to use anyway so was using it while sick, March 2020.
  • Star anise: Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, anthelmintic, insecticidal, expectorant, sedative, gastroprotective and antinociceptive, etc. (Patra et al. 2020, Wang et al. 2011). I also used Star anise in tea and it did sooth my sore throat. Citrus peel had a stronger mucus thinning (expectorant) effect for me.
  • Spearmint: Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, biopesticidal, larvicidal, anticancer, radioprotective effect, genotoxicity, and antidiabetic activities, etc. (Mahendran and Rahman 2020).
  • Mango powder: Antimicrobial, antitumor, antidiabetic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities, antipyretic, antiallergic hepatoprotective, etc. (Gupta et al. 2010, Kabir et al. 2017)
  • See the article pdf (Khanal et al, 2021, (9)) for more herbs, spices and foods and their phytonutrient content and their medicinal benefits. (9)

Nicotine? maybe yes.

Nicotine itself may have health benefits, especially for some genetic types – it is the smoking that is particularly a cancer risk. Nicotine may help block the spike protein. – more to this – will add later. link of interest: Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Involvement in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Interactions with Gut Microbiota. (11)

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Reference List

  1. A Phase 1/2/3, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Observer-Blind, Dose-finding Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of SARS-COV-2 RNA Vaccine Candidates Against COVID-19 in Healthy Individuals. Nov 2020, Pfizer – BioNTech, PF-07302048 (BNT162 RNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccines) Protocol C4591001 https://media.tghn.org/medialibrary/2020/11/C4591001_Clinical_Protocol_Nov2020_Pfizer_BioNTech.pdf
  2. Associated Press Staff, ‘Vaccine shedding’: No, COVID-19 vaccine does not spread by inhalation or skin contact. May 19, 2021, ChicagoTribune.com, https://www.chicagotribune.com/coronavirus/vaccine/ct-aud-nw-vaccine-shedding-20210519-iqi4fskovrcnfnsb5suaodd7n4-story.html
  3. Dr. Liji Thomas, MD, Dandelion extract inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. March 23, 2021, medical.net https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210323/Dandelion-extract-inhibits-SARS-CoV-2-in-vitro.aspx
  4. Hoai Thi Thu Tran, Nguyen Phan Khoi Le, Michael Gigl, Corinna Dawid, Evelyn Lamy. Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) efficiently blocks the interaction between ACE2 cell surface receptor and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein D614, mutants D614G, N501Y, K417N and E484K in vitro. bioRxiv 2021.03.19.435959; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.19.435959 https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.03.19.435959v1
  5. Eric Orr, Pine Needle Tea – Natural Source of Vitamin C. wildedible.com https://www.wildedible.com/pine-needle-tea-natural-vitamin-c
  6. MockingbirdMeadows, Pine Needle Tea, Suramin, and COVID Shots. May 11, 2021, mockingbirdeadows.com, https://mockingbirdmeadows.com/2021/05/11/pine-needle-tea-suramin-and-covid-shots/
  7. Singh, A., D’Amico, D., Andreux, P.A. et al. Direct supplementation with Urolithin A overcomes limitations of dietary exposure and gut microbiome variability in healthy adults to achieve consistent levels across the population. Eur J Clin Nutr (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-00950-1 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41430-021-00950-1
  8. Wenzhi Tan, Piera Pasinelli, Davide Trotti, Role of mitochondria in mutant SOD1 linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease, Vol 1842;8, 2014, pp 1295-1301, ISSN 0925-4439, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.02.009. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925443914000489
  9. Asmita Khanal, Hari Prasad Devkota, Sammodavardhana Kaundinnyayana, Prakash Gyawali, Ravindra Ananda, Rameshwar Adhikari. Culinary herbs and spices in Nepal: A review of their traditional uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, Vol 21, 2021 http://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/2753
  10. Me64_p71, Analysis of a Covid-19 vaccinated person. June 12, 2021, substack.com, https://me64p71b7e.substack.com/p/analysis-of-a-covid-19-vaccinated?r=hjhk4&utm_campaign=post&utm_medium=web&utm_source=copy
  11. Lola Rueda Ruzafa, José Luis Cedillo, and Arik J. Hone. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Involvement in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Interactions with Gut Microbiota. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2021, 18(3), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031189 https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/3/1189/htm
  12. Jeffrey Lubell, Nearly 2/3rds of Survey Respondents Report Large Benefits from High-Dose Thiamine (B-1). June 2, 2021, healthrising.org https://www.healthrising.org/blog/2021/06/02/fibromyalgia-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-benefit-high-dose-thiamine/
  13. Jeffrey Lubell, Could High-Dose Thiamine (B-1) Help with ME/CFS, Fibromyalgia, and the Neurological Complications of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome?, April 15, 2021, healthrising.org, https://www.healthrising.org/blog/2021/04/15/thiamine-b-1-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-fibromyalgia/
  14. Benfotiamine, alzdiscovery.org, https://www.alzdiscovery.org/cognitive-vitality/ratings/benfotiamine

Cannabinoids are made with the BHMT gene (and others).

Cannabinoids are complex molecules we can make when genetically and nutritionally, healthy and nourished. Various genetic differences are known that cause a deficiency in endogenously made cannabinoids – phospholipids. Lack of cannabinoids negatively effects many areas of health throughout the body and brain, the mood and decision making, and appetite, and movement are all affected by cannabinoid availability.

It is discrimination to prevent research from occurring into the medical benefits of cannabis and cannabinoids and to prevent people who need an external source from having access to it. Covid and LongCovid may be increasing the number of people who might benefit from an external source as epigenetic changes or some other effects of the viral infection may be causing dysfunction in normal production of cannabinoids or some other problem.

Cannabinoids and the Cannabinoid receptors perform many functions in the body.

Membranes and growth of tissue is affected directly as building blocks that are part of the membranes, and indirectly as messenger chemicals that help promote and guide growth.

Cannabinoids also have widespread effects on immune function in addition to brain and nerve function. Cannabinoid receptors are found throughout the brain and also on white blood cells, leukocytes. Our immune function also needs endogenous, internally made, cannabinoids, or would benefit from an external source if endogenous cannabinoids were not able to be made normally.

“In human leukocytes the expression of cannabinoid receptor mRNA has been reported to be lower than that found in brain tissue. The message has, however, been detected in all subsets of leukocytes examined. The message levels are greatest in S cells, followed sequentially by natural killer cells (NK), polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN), T8 cells, monocytes and T4 cells.” (11)

Leukocytes help us fight viral infections and patrol for other infectious pathogens or precancerous or cancerous cells. Nutrients work together, synergy – increased power together than any on their own. We need magnesium for leukocytes to be able to perform the killing, apoptosis, and we need niacin to help with the safe removal of debris or engulfing of virus or small cells. Cell contents that are spilt into surrounding tissue has to be removed or it causes more inflammatory damage and can lead to death of other cells.

Niacin reduces inflammation for us in some direct ways and indirectly by inhibiting the NF-kB inflammatory pathway. Deficiency may increase neurodegeneration as well as reduce immune function for fighting virus or cancer.

Reports suggest that deficiency of niacin can increase the risk of neurodegeneration, immunological disorder and inflammation stress [14]. Additionally, niacin exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by suppressing the NF-κB pathway [15].” (18)

The cannabinoid system is also involved in neurotransmitter levels.

According to previous studies, CB1r [Cannabinoid Receptor type 1] is located in the locus coeruleus (LC) and in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), and it regulates noradrenaline (NA) and serotonin (5HT) release, respectively, by the modulation of GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals (117118).” (17)

Problems with the endocannabinoid system can affect mood such as changes in serotonin leading to anxiety or depression. Adequate niacin intake helps preserve our serotonin levels by sparing tryptophan.

Genetic studies pointed out interesting results regarding the involvement of polymorphisms or epigenetic modifications of CNR1 as susceptibility/risk biomarkers to develop anxiety disorders. Lazary and cols. analyzed the interaction of the promoter regions of the serotonin transporter (5HTT; SLC6A4) and CNR1 genes on anxiety. Specific constellations of CB1r and 5HTT promoters were closely associated with high or low synaptic 5HT concentrations, which could result critically in the vulnerability to experience an anxiety disorder (124). Hay and cols. employed CRISPR/CAS9 technology to disrupt a highly conserved regulatory sequence (ECR1) of the gene encoding CB1r (CNR1).” (17)

Cannabinoid system differences occur in ethnic & gender groups. We may be equal but we are not all the same.

Who has the gene differences may vary with ethnicity. “With 60 DNA samples (120 alleles) for each of the 4 ethnic groups studied, we had 90% power to detect a variant allele with a true population frequency of ≥ 2% [16]. ” “Twenty-five SNPs were observed in BHMT — 17 in AA, 8 in CA, 9 in HCA, and 10 in MA subjects (Table 1 and Fig. 2 upper panel).” (1) Number of cannabinoid receptors has been found to vary based on ethnicity and gender with people of Caucasian background having the most, people with African/black background having slightly fewer, and Asian having significantly fewer than those of people with Caucasian or African ethnicity. (11)

The relative levels of the 58 kDa CBI protein 1070 E.S. Onaivi et al. from the male volunteers were, 47.4%; 39.0% and 13.6% for the White, Black and Asian blood samples respectively as shown in Fig. 3. The relative levels of the Cl31 protein in the male and female volunteers were 49.6%, 32.2% and 18.2% for the white and black females in comparison to the black male blood samples respectively as shown in Fig. 4. Therefore in both males and females, the cannabinoid receptors appear to vary by gender and ethnicity, for example Fig. 3 show white male > black male > Asian male and Fig. 4 show white female > black female > black male.” (11)

African Americans were found to have variations in the BHMT gene almost twice as often than Caucasian and Mexican-American ethnic groups and Hans Chinese American were least likely (small group study). (1)

The BHMT gene and Endogenous Cannabinoid production & breakdown.

The BHMT gene encodes an enzyme involved in homocysteine metabolism and the production of amino acids methionine, and dimethylglycine from betaine. (2) The BHMT enzyme is visualized in a graphic of the folded shape, made up of four parts, monomers, coupled into two sets of dimers, figure C: (1.1).

The BHMT enzyme is also involved in about 60% of the glycerophospholipid production pathway (2) which means important cannabinoids may not be able to be made internally and would need to be obtained in the diet or other sources or suffer deficiency symptoms chronically. People with Cystic Fibrosis also can’t make cannabinoids however the fatty acid end of the molecule is what can’t be made normally. The BHMT gene difference would disrupt production of the glycerophosphate end of the larger cannabinoid molecule. PA, PE, PI, and PS production might be reduced or dysfunctional and breakdown of LPC and LPE which might lead to some types of cannabinoids being unavailable and others unable to be broken down and remove normally so excess might collect -unknown by me. (3)

  • Phospholipids: PA, phosphatidic acid; PE, phosphatidylethanolamine; PC, phosphatidylcholine; PS, phosphatidylserine; PG, phosphatidylglycerol; CL, cardiolipin; PI, phosphatidylinositol. (15)
  • LPC, lysophosphatidylcholine; LPE, lysophosphatidylethanolamine, (19)
  • PE is needed to make anandamide, (20), the endocannabinoid similar to the euphoria producing cannabinoid THC found in marijuana.
  • PI is needed to make 2-AG, (20), the endocannabinoid similar to the non-euphoria producing cannabinoid CBD, also found in marijuana.

Research in cannabinoid chemistry was limited to toxicity or addiction due to the rescheduling of marijuana by the Nixon administration as nonmedical. Since the differences in function of the endocannabinoid system varies with ethnic group it is somewhat genetic discrimination to as well as racial discrimination to target an ethnic group with a law that wouldn’t affect all ethnic groups equally. Someone unable to make cannabinoids would have more craving and physical need for a rich source of phospholipids or cannabinoids, than a person with normal ability to make cannabinoids and/or a low or normal amount of cannabinoid receptors compared to someone with many of them.

Cannabinoid receptors effect mood, & may be involved in anxiety, depression, and possibly suicide.

Lysophosphatidylcholine, LPC, can cause an increase in calcium flow into cells at an atypical cannabinoid receptor GPR55 (4, 5) which is excitatory. Over activity, excess calcium entry, might be a negative to cell health. During normal activation levels the atypical cannabinoid receptor has anti-depressant effects and may help prevent suicide as the brains of suicide victims have fewer GPR55 receptors than typical. (14)

This result, plus the observation that GPR55 increases intracellular calcium, suggests that GPR55 activation enhances neuronal excitability. These findings, together with the preferential expression of GPR55 on large-diameter DRG neurons, which can be involved in nociception, particularly in neuropathic or inflammatory pain states (2931), suggest that GPR55 may have a pronocioceptive [pain increasing] role.” (5)

So overactivity of the GPR55 receptors might be perceived as chronic pain and might affect mood and suicidal ideation. Cannabinoid receptors in the prefrontal cortex (CB1) are also known to be involved with suicide risk from research with people suffering from anorexia (17) or alcoholism and depression. (16)

Cannabinoids also can reduce oxidative stress & inflammation, and may be helpful for preventing or treating neurocognitive degeneration conditions.

Calcium can cause oxidative stress damage and would be increased during times of strenuous activity or infection or other times of increased metabolism. THC can cross the blood brain barrier and can help reduce oxidative stress and may be helpful for treatment of neurocognitive degeneration. It was found to improve glucose use within cells and improve brain function in other ways with no toxicity problems in an animal based study. (12)

In silico analysis predicted THC to be permeable across the blood-brain-barrier. THC was also predicted to have an oral LD50 and toxicity class values of 482 mg/kg and 4 respectively. These results indicate that C. sativa improves glucose consumption with concomitant suppression of oxidative stress and cholinergic dysfunction, and modulation of purinergic and gluconeogenic activities in brain tissues.” (12)

Personal experience – I have a double BHMT allele – it isn’t something I would recommend trying yourself.

I have experience of a lifetime without typical cannabinoid production and the symptoms that may cause. There is a double allele of my BHMT gene which means I can not make some endocannabinoids and can’t break down others. A double allele means both copies contain the same difference from typical. (post, see # 3 in the first list) So I can’t make the BHMT enzyme at all. I supplement with dimethylglycine and methionine since finding out and it helped. I need to continue daily though as genetic metabolic differences mean lifelong symptoms of deficiency of the nutrients that are affected, or an excess of a chemical metabolite that normally would be broken down sooner so it wouldn’t collect.

Post: Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency, (CED), and phospholipids. Excerpt:

Conditions that may involve Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency, (CED):

Conditions that may involve a deficiency in cannabinoids chronically may include symptoms of pain, muscle spasms, nerve numbness, mood disorders, movement disorders, digestive and appetite problems, appetite and growth failure in infants or colic, menstrual problems and infertility/miscarriages and hyperemesis prenatally.

  • Pain/inflammation: Migraines, Fibromyalgia.
  • Mental health: Anxiety, PTSD, Major Depression, Bipolar disorder, Motion Sickness, The balance of cannabinoids (2-AG ~ noneuphoric CBD and anandamide ~ euphoric THC) is a problem in schizophrenia. There is too much of the anandamide, excess THC can cause schizophrenia like symptoms, and providing CBD may help patients. *See this post for more nutritional deficiencies that cause schizophrenia like symptoms, five or more may be involved, suggesting the problem is a symptom rather than a condition with a single cause – and a single cure: The voices that people with schizophrenia are hearing are probably their own inner thoughts.
  • Nervous system: Multiple sclerosis, Diabetic Neuropathy, Brachial plexopathy, Causalgia, Phantom limb pain, Glaucoma, Huntington’s, Parkinson’s, Cystic Fibrosis,
  • Appetite/digestive system: Anorexia & Bulimia, Neonatal Failure to Thrive, infantile Colic, Irritable Bowel Syndrome.
  • Fertility/reproductive system: Dysmenorrhea, Hyperemesis, repeated miscarriages (Russo 2016), (anandamide is needed for implantation of a fertilized egg in the uterus and development of the placenta to occur normally, too much or too little can disrupt the process, Fonseca 2013), male infertility due to sperm motility problems is associated with low levels of anandamide (AEA) (Amoako 2013), (too much can also negatively affect male or female fertility). *See this post for more details about infertility and phospholipids: (Phospholipid or phosphorylation deficiency: Potential symptoms)
  • Other food sources of cannabinoids exist in addition to marijuana or hemp however the amount provided is in lower concentrations so you might need a large salad that includes several sources at one meal, and other sources in beverages, supplements, or at other meals.

— Addition to the excerpt – the amount of cannabinoids in medical marijuana is a lot more, and more likely to be obviously helpful, than the amount of phospholipids or cannabinoids found in a few foods and spices. Sadly medical marijuana has been stigmatized and illegal for many decades. Research into medical benefits was prevented with Richard Nixon’s administration rescheduled cannabis as having no medical value. Research was only possible on addiction or toxicity. Marijuana/cannabis not only has medical value, it has been used medicinally or in other ways by humans for thousands of years. Paper and rope made from hemp fiber was also a large industry prior to making cannabis illegal.

Conditions I’ve had symptoms of which might be due to Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency.

The conditions/symptoms I’ve had over my life from the above list include: Migraines, Fibromyalgia; Anxiety, PTSD, Major Depression, Bipolar disorder; Anorexia & Bulimia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome; and some nerve/numbness symptoms since childhood – dystonia.

The amount of cannabinoids a human needs if they are unable to make them internally/endogenously is not readily available information due to the lack of research. The amount of medical marijuana that I find necessary to feel nerve flow in my fingers and throughout my body and to have other symptoms improve is quite a bit each day. It adds up in money to buy, and time and stigma to use.

Smoking is frowned upon by society and cannabis use is still treated as if it is just an addiction or even criminal (which it still is at the Federal level), so it frightens some people to even learn that you use it, or have used it recently. Chronic users have adapted a tolerance to it (8), and mentally may be more used to functioning with some than going without. The type of strain is important for the terpenes that provide different aroma also provide different health effects. Some can be calming for anxiety (limonene), and another sleep inducing and pain relieving (myrcene).

Daily use every 2-4 hours is what I find helpful and smoking has benefits for dosing. Edibles take longer to feel an effect and then suddenly can be too much. Inhalation effects are fairly immediate and easy to know then when enough has been absorbed. The forms of cannabinoids that are absorbed may vary too with the different intake routes, and inhalation may be more effective for some types of health problems than edible/intestinal absorption. The healthiest I’ve ever felt was when I combined eating some fresh trim or immature buds everyday or edibles along with some smoked bud.

Smoke toxins are a negative that causes the “dopey” effect of the stereotypical marijuana user. Vaping devices exist that heat the bud to a lower temperature so the burnt toxins are not created, however some of the THC conversion occurs at higher temperatures so symptoms may not be helped as much. The vape oil products may have other negative effects on the lungs due to the oil and flavorings being inhaled into the lungs where it can add to pneumonia risk.

How much THC am I getting throughout a day then? Possibly 40% of whatever was in the marijuana you smoked – a lot is lost when you burn the buds. 8 There is approximately 525 mg in an eighth of good medical grade marijuana with 15% THC. (6) That eighth ounce might cost $45-60. One gram per day of 10% THC marijuana might provide 40% of the 100 mg of THC it contains, if smoked vs made into an edible. A quarter to half of a one gram joint every 2-4 hours might be giving 10-20 milligrams of THC each time. Strains that also provide some CBD are important as the cannabinoids work together to do somethings in the body such as inhibit mast cell activation.

Eighty to hundred milligrams of THC is suggested as possibly feeling like an excessive dose all at once for someone with increased tolerance, while 25-80 range might be the typical preferred dose. (8)

I have not calculated this for myself before so it does bring up an interesting question of whether I’m getting too much, or enough, or not enough – the fact that I felt best while also eating fresh trim and other edibles regularly would suggest to me that it is not enough when only smoking and that I do need quite a bit daily.

The non-euphoric CBD has been found safe for use even at 1500 mg per day, though 20-40 mg might be more typically used. (7)

Dronabinol is a capsule form of a THC like medication and it might be prescribed at a 2.5 mg dose twice per day. That might seem like a lot to a new user and not that big of a dose to someone else, although the lack of CBD may be a problem if anxiety is a side effect.

Tolerance levels can reduce after not using for a while and then build back up again. Doses that would seem intense for a new user would not really affect a long term user. (8) Genetics may play more of a role in these differences too, lack of research leaves some questions unasked.

Genetic differences occur in the number of cannabinoid receptors which can effect tolerance for a concentrated source such as medical marijuana.

There can be genetic differences where a person doesn’t make cannabinoids well and has lots of extra cannabinoid receptors, all wanting/ready for cannabinoid activation – but with none or to little available. They might tolerate and prefer a larger dose of THC. Other people might have normal amounts of cannabinoid production and like a smaller dose or none, might not like it. For me it provides feeling throughout my body in a way that I don’t have otherwise. It helps me for muscle knots or spasms and pain. Mentally it helps me with PTSD and anxiety and prevents mast cell histamine excess and hyperexcitability.

Cannabinoids help with learning & forgetting – reshaping nerve pathways – neural plasticity. Pain signal pathways can also be remade more easily with cannabinoids.

Cannabinoids help with learning and nerve flow, and with forgetting – changing nerve pathways to build new as needed and remove the old as they are not needed (old phone number for example). Neural plasticity – changing nerve pathways and synapses between nerves is a function involving cannabinoids. Pain and movement, appetite and growth, cannabinoids affect many functions of the body and neural plasticity can affect pain pathways too – remembered pain in an amputee’s healed wound, and maybe feelings of the missing limb still being there also.

The same team noted a baseline fragility of serotonergic systems in migraine and fibromyalgia [89], plus the co-occurrence of primary headache in 97% of 201 fibromyalgia patients. In a later study [67], they supported the concept that both disorders represented a failure of serotonergic analgesia and NMDA-mediated neuronal plasticity.” (9)

Synergy – many nutrients work together to perform any action in the body. Magnesium also helps inhibit excess pain nerve signals.

Pain conditions can be caused by deficiency of nutrients or chemicals that inhibit pain sensing nerves. Magnesium is needed to inhibit them as well as cannabinoids. Migraine pain may be not responsive to opiate pain killers. (9)

A trigeminovascular system has long been implicated as integral to the pain, inflammation and secondary vascular effects of migraine, linked through the NMDA/glutamate system [49]. Cannabinoid agonists inhibit voltage-gated calcium channels, and activate potassium channels to produce presynaptic inhibition of glutamate release [50], without dissociative effects noted with other NMDA inhibitors, such as ketamine.” (9)

*Having adequate potassium and magnesium in the diet and avoiding excess glutamate in seasonings and other dietary sources can also help avoid migraines – in addition to the cannabinoids or cannabinoid receptor agonists – activators.

Diabetes pain may also not be helped by opiates unless magnesium is also provided – and providing magnesium in a larger dose helped even more! (10)

Give the body what it needs to function and it functions. Miracle!

Sunshine might be part of the miracle too – vitamin D represents a group of chemicals which may aid us in ways we don’t know yet. Supplementing with one – vitamin D, may not be providing us others that we would have made if sun or full spectrum/UVB containing light is available. (13)

We need cannabinoids too – and some of us genetically can’t make them – since birth, and potentially – epigenetic changes might be occurring that cause dysfunction in a person’s ability to make cannabinoids at some point later in their life. Is that happening in LongCovid survivors? -discussed in the last post.

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Reference List

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    1. Figure 3, https://europepmc.org/articles/PMC2515933/figure/F3/
  2. BHMT Gene (Protein Coding), Betaine–Homocysteine S-Methyltransferase: BHMT Pathways & Interactions, genecards.org, https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=BHMT#pathways_interactions
  3. Glycerophospholipid biosynthesis, reactome.org, https://reactome.org/PathwayBrowser/#/R-HSA-1483206
  4. Drzazga A, Sowinska A, Krzeminska A, Rytczak P, Koziolkiewicz M, Gendaszewska-Darmach E. Lysophosphatidylcholine elicits intracellular calcium signaling in a GPR55-dependent manner. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2017 Jul 22;489(2):242-247. doi: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.05.145. Epub 2017 May 26. PMID: 28552522. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/28552522/
  5. Lauckner JE, Jensen JB, Chen HY, Lu HC, Hille B, Mackie K. GPR55 is a cannabinoid receptor that increases intracellular calcium and inhibits M current. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008;105(7):2699-2704. doi:10.1073/pnas.0711278105 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2268199/
  6. Understand Cannabis Weights & Calculate THC Dose, June 5, canuvo.org, https://canuvo.org/cannabis-weight-calculate-thc-dose/
  7. CBD Dosage: Figuring Out How Much to Take, healthline.org, https://www.healthline.com/health/cbd-dosage#safety-and-side-effects
  8. Barreda AR, De Leon K and Urmasa S., A simple guide to pot, THC and how much is too much. April 20, 2018, latimes.com, https://www.latimes.com/projects/la-me-weed-101-thc-calculator/
  9. Russo, Ethan. (2008). Clinical Endocannabinoid Deficiency (CECD): Can this Concept Explain Therapeutic Benefits of Cannabis in Migraine, Fibromyalgia, Irritable Bowel Syndrome and other Treatment-Resistant Conditions?. Neuro endocrinology letters. 29. 192-200. 10.1522/cla.roj.let. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/5448843_Clinical_Endocannabinoid_Deficiency_CECD_Can_this_Concept_Explain_Therapeutic_Benefits_of_Cannabis_in_Migraine_Fibromyalgia_Irritable_Bowel_Syndrome_and_other_Treatment-Resistant_Conditions
  10. M. Bujalska, H. Makulska-Nowak, S.W. Gumuka,  Magnesium ions and opioid agonists in vincristine-induced neuropathy, Pharmacol Rep. 2009 Nov-Dec;61(6):1096-104. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20081245
  11. Onaivi ES, Chaudhuri G, Abaci AS, Parker M, Manier DH, Martin PR, Hubbard JR. Expression of cannabinoid receptors and their gene transcripts in human blood cells. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 1999 Aug;23(6):1063-77. doi: 10.1016/s0278-5846(99)00052-4. PMID: 10621950 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/12692236_Expression_of_cannabinoid_receptors_and_their_gene_transcripts_in_human_blood_cells
  12. Erukainure OL, Matsabisa MG, Salau VF, Islam MS. Tetrahydrocannabinol-Rich Extracts From Cannabis Sativa L. Improve Glucose Consumption and Modulate Metabolic Complications Linked to Neurodegenerative Diseases in Isolated Rat Brains. Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:592981. Published 2020 Nov 24. doi:10.3389/fphar.2020.592981 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7774498/
  13. Vitamin D and your health: Breaking old rules, raising new hopes. Updated May 17, 2019, Published Feb. 2007, health.harvard.edu, https://www.health.harvard.edu/staying-healthy/vitamin-d-and-your-health-breaking-old-rules-raising-new-hopes
  14. Wróbel A, Serefko A, Szopa A, Ulrich D, Poleszak E, Rechberger T. O-1602, an Agonist of Atypical Cannabinoid Receptors GPR55, Reverses the Symptoms of Depression and Detrusor Overactivity in Rats Subjected to Corticosterone Treatment. Front Pharmacol. 2020;11:1002. Published 2020 Jul 8. doi:10.3389/fphar.2020.01002 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7360849/
  15. Image/ Figure “General structure of phospholipids and common head groups.” source: Membrane lipids in Agrobacterium tumefaciens: Biosynthetic pathways and importance for pathogenesis researchgate.net, https://www.researchgate.net/figure/General-structure-of-phospholipids-and-common-head-groups-PLs-contain-two-fatty-acids_fig1_261605192
  16. Hungund BL, Vinod KY, Kassir SA,, et al., Upregulation of CB1 receptors and agonist-stimulated [35S]GTPS binding in the prefrontal cortex of depressed suicide victims. March 2004, Mol Psychiatry 9(2):184-90 DOI: 10.1038/sj.mp.4001376 https://www.researchgate.net/publication/8692237_Upregulation_of_CB1_receptors_and_agonist-stimulated_35SGTPS_binding_in_the_prefrontal_cortex_of_depressed_suicide_victims
  17. Navarrete Francisco, García-Gutiérrez María Salud, Jurado-Barba Rosa, et al., Endocannabinoid System Components as Potential Biomarkers in Psychiatry. Frontiers in Psychiatry Vol 11, 2020, 31 pp, DOI=10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00315 https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00315/full
  18. Li R, Li Y, Liang X, Yang L, Su M, Lai KP. Network Pharmacology and bioinformatics analyses identify intersection genes of niacin and COVID-19 as potential therapeutic targets [published online ahead of print, 2020 Nov 10]. Brief Bioinform. 2020;bbaa300. doi:10.1093/bib/bbaa300 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7717147/
  19. Lysophosphatidylethanolamine, sciencedirect.com, https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/lysophosphatidylethanolamine
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Niacin, & early treatment in general for SARS-CoV-2 is sensible, reduces hospitalization and mortality rate.

The longer a viral infection is allowed to progress the more cells are killed or damaged, either by the viral replication, or by the damaged cells contents harming the surrounding tissue . See for more information: Pathophysiological Basis and Rationale for Early Outpatient Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Infection. (1)

See my recent post for a variety of nutrients or other strategies which may help prevent or provide early treatment for a viral infection: COVID19, summary of nutrients that might help prevent, treat, recover.

Niacin in a large dose may help with treatment of an active COVID19 illness or the symptoms of LongCovid. Specifically the niacin/nicotinic acid form, not niacinamide. The “niacin flush” that occurs is warm – and is removing inflammation along with the increased sensation of warmth on the skin. Feeling a little chilled as the niacin flush continues is also normal, internally the body is cooling somewhat as the inflammation is being removed as heat on the skin.

This article summarizes the value of a variety of B vitamins against viral infections and/or inflammation and goes into more detail about niacin use for prevention or treatment of infections and inflammation: Is Niacin a Missing Piece of the COVID Puzzle?. (2) Niacin helps our body cope with increased inflammation and without niacin the inflammation continues to become more severe. For more detail see: Sufficient niacin supply: the missing puzzle piece to COVID-19, and beyond? by Dmitry Kats, PhD (3); and Be Well: A Potential Role for Vitamin B in COVID-19, a team project including scientists from several nations. (4)

Niacin (nicotinic acid) Protocol against COVID-19,
shared with permission of the author, Dmitry Kats, PhD.
*The apples and antihistamines can decrease the flush effect if it seems like too much and should be fine at other times of the day, than taken with or shortly after the niacin dose.

Adequate niacin may also help the body have a stable thyroid hormone level. (5)

Low levels of niacin and a metabolite NAD+ may be involved in mitochondrial myopathy which leads to tiredness and weak muscles. Providing 500-1000 milligrams of niacin per day was found to improve muscle strength, increase NAD+ levels to the level seen in the healthy control group, and liver fat decreased by 50% in the experimental group. (6)

Potential short term symptoms – may include serotonin increase.

People who were previously low in serotonin, a neurotransmitter that affects mood and intestinal health, may experience temporary symptoms from an increase in the messenger chemical. Once the body adjusts to the new level of serotonin the symptoms should no longer occur. Symptoms of a sudden increase, or excess of serotonin may include: Agitation or restlessness, Confusion, Rapid heart rate and high blood pressure, Dilated pupils, Loss of muscle coordination or twitching muscles, Muscle rigidity, Heavy sweating, Diarrhea, Headache, Shivering, Goose bumps. (13) People experiencing Serotonin Syndrome for other reasons would likely have more severe symptoms than the short term change due to the increase in niacin. Tryptophan is an amino acid precursor for serotonin and it is depleted when there is inadequate niacin available to make NAD+.

Potential long term risks – may affect liver health and gout – uric acid; quercetin may help reduce risk of uric acid build up.

People with liver damage or gout may need to avoid taking large doses of niacin long term (more than 2000-6000 mg/day). Taking it along with alcohol use may increase the risk of liver damage and worsen the symptoms of the niacin flush with itching. Long term use of large doses may lead to gout, excess uric acid. (7) Symptoms of gout can occur abruptly even waking up at night with severe joint pain, most frequently occurring in the joint at the base of the large toes. Other joint tissue can also be affected. Pain, swelling and redness in the affected toe or other joints are typical symptoms. (8)

Use of large doses of niacin/nicotinic acid for treatment of patients with symptoms of schizophrenia were studied extensively in the 1950s-70s. Use of nicotinamide was not found to help similarly and the treatment was most immediately beneficial for patients with acute onset of the schizophrenia symptoms. People with chronic schizophrenia took longer to respond to use of niacin and needed larger doses to achieve symptom relief. Regarding risk of toxicity, liver concerns, gout, and increases in blood uric acid were observed but were not too severe of a problem, compared to the adverse side effects seen with standard psychiatric medications, and some patients could use a different form or a smaller dose. “The vitamin has been given to patients suffering from gout whose symptoms were not aggravated and it did not interfere with their specific treatment for gout.” (9)

Uric acid/urate levels in gout can be reduces with use of xanthine oxidase inhibitors (10) which include the phytonutrient quercetin. (11) For more information about quercetin’s other benefits as a zinc ionophore and bioflavonoid see the recent post: COVID19, summary of nutrients that might help prevent, treat, recover.

Quercetin is found in many plant foods in small amounts, and rich in some foods like capers (Alcaparras) and cilantro. It is also found in citrus and pomegranate peel. “The researchers note that pickling promotes conversion of rutin (flavonoid compound also called rutoside in capers) to quercetin, the ingredient that they found to be an efficacious KCNQ channel activator. This makes pickled capers as the richest known “natural” source of quercetin, with a maximum reported concentration of 520 mg/100 g for canned capers, compared to a maximum of 323 mg/100 g quercetin for raw capers.” (12) People with Mast Cell overactivity (seasonal allergy & other symptoms might be present) may need to avoid pickled or other fermented foods as that can worsen mast cell symptoms, for more information see: MCAS/Histamine.

Other nutrients that may help as cofactors recommended by Dimitry Kat’s, Ph.D. include vitamin C, a B complex, vitamin D3, zinc, magnesium, and Black seed oil, quercetin, and N-acetyl cysteine could provide additional antioxidant support.

Dr. Kats’ All Natural Daily Protocol for COVID19 (*may help preventively, during viral or other infections, and during recovery. The nutrients help the body remove inflammation as heat loss, the skin reddening ‘niacin flush’. The nutrients also are used by mitochondria to provide us energy and reduce risk of cancer. Niacin and magnesium help cells engulf damaged cells, pathogens, and chemical debris, or tangled proteins for reuse as nutrients. )

Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Reference List

  1. Peter A. McCullough, MD, MPH. et al., Pathophysiological Basis and Rationale for Early Outpatient Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Infection. August 06, 2020 American Journal of Medicine, VOL 134, ISSUE 1, P16-22, JANUARY 01, 2021 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.07.003 https://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(20)30673-2/fulltext
  2. Mercol J, Is Niacin a Missing Piece of the COVID Puzzle?, Jan 20, 2021, mercola.com, https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2021/01/20/what-are-the-benefits-of-niacin.aspx
  3. Kats D, Sufficient niacin supply: the missing puzzle piece to COVID-19, and beyond?, preprint, https://osf.io/uec3r/
  4. Be Well: A Potential Role for Vitamin B in COVID-19, Maturitas, Shakoor H, Feehan J, Mikkelsen K, et al. Be well: A potential role for vitamin B in COVID-19. Maturitas. 2021;144:108-111. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.08.007 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428453/
  5. Shakir KM, Kroll S, Aprill BS, Drake AJ 3rd, Eisold JF. Nicotinic acid decreases serum thyroid hormone levels while maintaining a euthyroid state. Mayo Clin Proc. 1995 Jun;70(6):556-8. doi: 10.4065/70.6.556. PMID: 7776715. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7776715/
  6. Pirinen E, Auranen M, Khan NA, Brilhante V, Urho N, Pessia A, Hakkarainen A, Kuula J, Heinonen U, Schmidt MS, Haimilahti K, Piirilä P, Lundbom N, Taskinen MR, Brenner C, Velagapudi V, Pietiläinen KH, Suomalainen A. Niacin Cures Systemic NAD+ Deficiency and Improves Muscle Performance in Adult-Onset Mitochondrial Myopathy. Cell Metab. 2020 Jun 2;31(6):1078-1090.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.04.008. Epub 2020 May 7. Erratum in: Cell Metab. 2020 Jul 7;32(1):144. PMID: 32386566. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32386566/
  7. Niacin, mayoclinic.org, https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-niacin/art-20364984
  8. Gout – Symptoms & Causes, mayoclinic.org, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gout/symptoms-causes/syc-20372897
  9. Hoffer A, Megavitamin B-3 Therapy for Schizophrenia, Canad. Psychiat. Ass. J. Vol. 16 (1971) https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/070674377101600605
  10. White WB, Gout, Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition, and Cardiovascular Outcomes. Circulation. 2018;138:1127–1129 https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.036148
  11. Zhang C, Wang R, Zhang G, Gong D. Mechanistic insights into the inhibition of quercetin on xanthine oxidase. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Jun;112:405-412. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.01.190. Epub 2018 Jan 31. PMID: 29410028. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29410028/
  12. Kim Stewart, Discovery: Caper Berry’s Quercetin Activates KCNQ Potassium Channel. July 16, 2020, todayspractitioner.com https://todayspractitioner.com/botanical-medicine/discovery-caper-berrys-quercetin-activates-kcnq-potassium-channel/
  13. Serotonin Syndrome: Symptoms & Causes, mayoclinic.org https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/serotonin-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20354758