Pomegranate peel catechins – inhibition of NET formation

We could show that the flavonoids (−)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin hydrate, and rutin trihydrate as well as vitamin C and the pharmacological substances N-acetyl-L-cysteine and 5-aminosalicylic acid inhibited PMA induced ROS production and NET formation.” (1)

Why care about NET formation? because it may be associated with worse risk of coagulation and blood clots forming in severe COVID-19 illness. (3, 4) Interleuken-6 (IL-6) can increase NET formation by neutraphil white blood cells attempting to ensnare pathogens and IL-6 levels tend to be elevated in more severe COVID-19 illness.

NET-neutraphil extracellular traps: “Thrombosis [coagulation/blood clotting], sepsis, and thick mucous secretions share neutrophil extracellular traps as a common causal agent. In addition to phagocytosis and degranulation, neutrophils can kill pathogens by extruding neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs), a process termed NETosis.” (2)

Rutin is found in citrus peel and other plants. Epicatechin and catechin hydrate are in pomegranate peel or juice possibly (more in the peel). N-acetyl-L-cysteine is available as a supplement also known as NAC, and 5-aminosalicylic acid is a medication. Acetylsalicylic acid is aspirin and it also inhibits NET formation. (search results) Salicylic acid may be in some spices/plant foods. Many spices used in Indian cooking are good sources of salicylic acid. (post: Carrots, Spices, and baby aspirin help prevent cancer)

Reference List

  1. Kirchner T, Hermann E, Möller S, et al. Flavonoids and 5-aminosalicylic acid inhibit the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. Mediators Inflamm. 2013;2013:710239. doi:10.1155/2013/710239 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3871909/
  2. Yanuck SF, Pizzorno J, Messier H, Fitzgerald KN, Evidence Supporting a Phased Immuno-physiological Approach to COVID-19 From Prevention Through Recovery. athmjournal.com/ https://athmjournal.com/covid19/research/evidence-supporting-a-phased-immuno-physiological-approach-to-covid-19-from-prevention-through-recovery/ *”interventions for one phase may not be appropriate for a different phase. The 4 phases addressed are: Prevention, Infection, Inflammation & Recovery.
  3. Thierry AR, Roch B. SARS-CoV2 may evade innate immune response, causing uncontrolled neutrophil extracellular traps formation and multi-organ failure. Clin Sci (Lond). 2020 Jun 26;134(12):1295-1300. doi: 10.1042/CS20200531. PMID: 32543703. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32543703/
  4. Julie Kiefer, Clues to COVID-19 Complications Come from NET-Like Inflammatory Response. Jun 29, 2020, healthcare.utah.edu, https://healthcare.utah.edu/publicaffairs/news/2020/06/nets-covid.php