Shedding of the spike protein – a communicable prion disease risk?

There has been concern shared by un-CoV-vaccinated women about having experienced menstrual changes after being around people who had received a CoV injection. A breast fed baby died after the breastfeeding mother received a CoV injection – yes it might be random coincidence, but maybe it wasn’t, maybe something was transmitted in the mother’s breast milk.

The spike protein itself has been found to cause blood clotting problems as it can cause cells to fuse together into clumps – which would be clot like. Anemia and renal inflammation were found in a person who experienced health symptoms after a “Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA COVID-19 vaccine 24 days before“. (10)

This article is brief and is fact checking a claim that the Pfizer vaccine can be shed. It states that it cannot be transmitted between people: ‘Vaccine shedding’: No, COVID-19 vaccine does not spread by inhalation or skin contact (2) Well of course not, the vaccine includes a complex lipid coated nanoparticle encasing the mRNA – which of course can not be transmitted between people.

The real question, and concern is – can the spike protein be transmitted? The mRNA encodes for a slightly modified version of the spike protein, which would be produced by the person’s own cells – and have to be cleared by their detoxification system. Someone with poor detox function may have spike protein lingering in their blood plasma longer than someone with normal function.

The consensus appears to be that we are dealing with a spike protein transmission from injected to non-injected. The Pfizer documents in particular refer to a known chance that this could occur through skin to skin contact or through exhalation. Most of the folks I know seem to lean more toward exhalation.” (6)

Then if the spike is released on a person’s skin or in exhaled air, then if someone else was exposed to enough of it, there might be symptoms. Blood clotting or other changes might be due to the stickiness, hook like effect, that clumps cells together. Spike protein is a toxin. Please stop trusting the experiment.

Other risks might involve the prion like ability of the spike protein to cause other proteins to also misfold, which may then cause others to misfold in a cascading effect. Prion like concerns about the spike protein.

Blood changes and menstrual changes may occur because it was found that the gene carrying lipid nanoparticles collect within bone marrow and ovaries – so within the injected person there would be more spike production in the bone marrow and ovaries. In someone who was just nearby a CoV injected person, it is unknown what would happen to any spike protein that was inhaled or ingested. Intestinal symptoms may also be a result of spike protein attaching to ACE2 receptors on cells lining the intestines.

People may be getting different symptoms due to personal genetic and nutritional differences. They may also have received different batches of the experimental treatments. Pfizer was testing two variations of the spike protein: “BNT162b1 (variant RBP020.3): a modRNA encoding the RBD; BNT162b2 (variant RBP020.2): a modRNA encoding P2 S.” (1)

Things that may help protect the body internally from the spike protein.

Pomegranate peel – the inner can be eaten in small amounts the outer rind is really only useful in a long steeped tea/extract (20-30 minute gentle simmer).

Part of the benefit of pomegranate juice is due to a healthy microbiome changing some of the catechins into urolithin-A, a metabolite that can cross the blood brain barrier and reduce neuroinflammation & promote neurogenesis.

In summary, the alpha and beta diversity results indicate that the ability to convert UA from its precursors is significantly associated with a higher microbiome richness and overall composition.” (7)

Citrus peel – it is a source of quinine, (various links), quercetin, hesperidin, and other beneficial phytonutrients that may help protect against the spike protein or help with detoxification. It can also help reduce appetite, insulin resistance, and Metabolic Syndrome. Citrus peel bioflavonoids also help clear respiratory congestion and open airways; research has found it helpful for asthmatic symptoms. See: Citrus Peel, or previous posts – include some citrus & some pomegranate peel links.

Can’t find a pomegranate in season? – or have a citrus sensitivity? (MCAS/Histamine)- how about dandelion leaf tea then? (3, 4) Look for dandelions in a wild area or lawn where the owner doesn’t use herbicides or pesticides.

Dandelion plant in a garden bed, long serrated leaves that can become somewhat lettuce like if allowed to grow into a larger rosette of spikey leaves. Allowing the leaves to dry before making tea may increase the phytonutrient content. (9)

Pine needle tea may also be protective as a source of beneficial terpenes, vitamin C, and other phytonutrients. Indigenous Americans use cedar or other evergreen needles for a medicinal tea. Avoid over-heating or boiling as excess tannins are a diuretic and may be an irritant in quantity; and the oily terpenes may add too much of a taste like turpentine. (5) It is recommended to boil water, let it cool somewhat, and then steep the prepped pine needles for 15 minutes or overnight for a stronger tea. (5, 6) Please be cautious about harvesting evergreen needles from a tree you don’t own, or in a way that is overly destructive to the plant.

Social media posts have mentioned pine or evergreen needles as a source of suramin, and that is not true according to a plant scientist. * Who may be wrong according to this in depth article – simply there is a step in between in the extraction process. Suramin is refined from another pine oil product, rather than directly from the pine needles or pine oil. https://thefreedomarticles.com/covid-vaccine-antidote-pine-needle-tea-suramin-inhibits-dna-rna-replication/ update 6/23/2021

Safe species of evergreens are good source of vitamin C, and also “shikimic acid [which] has been shown to hold anti-sticky platelet properties as well… very helpful in protecting against blood clots!

So drink pine tea… we’ll have my own formula on offer at our store… its delicious! But, please be careful, as always, when sharing information about our plants. At best, it drives a frenzy of demand on the market for foraged herbal goods… sometimes that can damage our plant communities in more ways than you can imagine. At worst, the misinformation can damage our cause and feed the idea that those of us in alternative channels don’t actually do science.” (6)

Shikimic acid is also found in Star anise and is used in the production of the anti-viral medication Tamiflu. (6)

I found Star anise very helpful while I was sick with the respiratory symptoms of COVID19, just a few pieces broken off and added to a cup of tea was soothing for my throat. I seemed to become sensitized to it though and got similar symptoms from the blue spruce tea that I tried recently (urinary urgency, and over acidity possibly). Drink plenty of water following a medicinal tea as part of the benefit can be in peeing out an increased amount of toxins – but the kidneys need the water to be able to do that without endangering the delicate renal system.

  • *Caution is deserved with trying anything new. We are all different and also vary within our own state of health and aging. So pay attention to how you feel shortly after trying something and also the next day. Some side effects of dietary supplements can occur a few hours later or the next day.

Vitamin C is also critically important for healthy blood vessels and the prevention of excessive blood clotting.

Glycine is also needed for protecting blood vessel membranes and the blood brain barrier. It is used in collagen which is a fibrous protein that adds structure to the gelatin like fluid surrounding cells and within them. Glycine – good for our extracellular matrix & for immune protection against viral infection.

Glyphosate from Roundup herbicide use may be part of the health problems and varying risk. Biofuel made from biomass grown with Roundup type herbicides is likely causing glyphosate residue in the air surrounding the production facilities and in the areas where that type of biofuel is used by many of the cars and trucks. Glyphosate is also in the food supply in the foods grown with it, ingredients from those foods, or animal products from animals fed Roundup crops. It is an amino acid that can take the place of glycine and cause misfolding of protein chains. Avoiding sources and taking extra Dimethylglycine may be helpful for health. It is available as a refined amino acid powder. See: Glycine & glyphosate & misfolded proteins – Seneff article.

Niacin and other B vitamins help with the removal of cellular debris from the extracellular matrix or pathogens, or damaged or infected cells.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the neurodegenerative disease that led to physicist Stephen Hawkings having to use a wheelchair most of his adult life. ALS can involve misfolded proteins and begins with mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial dysfunction can precede Alzheimer’s dementia and Parkinson’s Disease also, and both involve misfolded proteins.

Functional defects in mitochondria appear early before symptoms are manifested in ALS. Therefore, mitochondrial dysfunction is a promising therapeutic target in ALS. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Misfolded Proteins, Mitochondrial Dysfunction, and Neurodegenerative Diseases.” (8)

Our cellular debris removal system would remove misfolded proteins for reuse of the amino acids during good health. Niacin and the rest of the B vitamin team, magnesium, and vitamin C are needed for mitochondrial function.

Thiamin (B1) is commonly available in the diet but is needed in much greater quantity when an infection or inflammation is present. Deficiency typically is only common in cases where malnutrition is also present such as anorexia nervosa and chronic alcoholism. Higher dose supplements may be beneficial for chronic inflammatory conditions, such as Chronic Fatigue Syndrome, Fibromyalgia, or Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS). (12, 13) Benfotiamine is form that can be better absorbed across the blood brain barrier, (14), however standard forms of thiamine are also helpful.

As far as type, people in my survey reported good results with thiamine HCL, benfotiamine, and thiamine mononitrate but some said one worked rather than the others while some swore by more specialized thiamines. Details in the article [12].” – Jeffrey Lubell (@JeffLubell_C19)

Vitamin C is also needed in greater amounts than during typical health along with magnesium and many nutrients. When the body has to do more work – it needs more fuel and tools that are single use or limited use. Some nutrients can be recycled while others need to be replaced for each chemical reaction. Liposomal vitamin C is better absorbed than standard forms which are acidic and may cause diarrhea in larger amounts or for people who tend to have diarrhea easily (IBS/IBD). Excessive amount are simply passed through and will not be absorbed. Smaller doses of vitamin C are beneficial for a viral infection and very large doses would only be needed in case of cytokine storm, and then Intravenous Vitamin C therapy can help.

Magnesium sources, also protein and phospholipids:

We need transport carriers for the electrically active mineral or the body can not keep extra of the active form, and it will be excreted in the urine instead of being held available as back-stock in case of emergency trauma or emotional stress.

Phytonutrients in Foods

Phytonutrients are numerous in fruits, vegetables, herbs, spices, and many beverages made with plant products. Eating a rich variety of foods provides the body nutrients and phytonutrients that have anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, and immune system promoting benefits.

In Nepal many herbs and spices are used in daily cooking, including “turmeric, cumin, coriander, ginger, garlic, onion, pepper, corm, fenugreek, and chili,” and even more variety of spices may be used on special occasions, or in pickles and other home-made dishes. (9)

  • Garlic: Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal, immunomodulatory, cardioprotective, anticancer, hepatoprotective, antidiabetic, etc. (Batiha, 2020a)
  • Onion: Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic properties, beneficial against hyperlipidaemia and hypertension, etc. (Marrelli et al. 2019)
  • Black CuminBunium persi: Antibacterial, antifungal, anticonvulsant effects, antihistaminic, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, , antioxidant, etc. (Hassanzadaza et al. 2018; Shah et al. 2019) * may be helpful for MCAS/Histamine excess
  • Black Cumin – Nigella sativa, Antidiabetic, analgesic, anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, spasmolytic, gastro-protective, etc. (Ahmad et al. 2013). *These seeds are used for Black Seed Oil, it may be helpful against SARS-CoV-2.
  • Chili: Antioxidant, cancer chemopreventive, antidiabetic, gastroprotective, and antimicrobial activities, pain relief, treatment of metabolic syndrome, etc. (Salehi et al. 2018)
  • Coriander: Antioxidant, diuretic, antidiabetic, sedative, antimicrobial, anti-convulsant, hypnotic, anthelmintic, antimutagenic, etc. (Nadeem et al. 2013)
  • Cumin: Antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant, hypotensive, antiosteoporotic, tyrosinase inhibitory effects, etc. (Al-Snafi 2016; Gangadharappa et al. 2017).
  • Fennel: Antimicrobial, antifungal, antioxidant, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, antitumor, activities, etc. (Rather et al. 2016).
  • Flax: Antifungal, antioxidant, antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antidiabetic, antithrombic, antiobesity activities, etc. (Goyal et al. 2014, Tavarini et al. 2019).
  • Licorice: Anticoagulant, expectorant, antidemulcent, antiulcer, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antiviral, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, immunomodulatory, etc. (Batiha et al. 2020b). The whole root as an herbal preparation may have anti-viral benefits against SARS-CoV-2. It is an herb I happen to use anyway so was using it while sick, March 2020.
  • Star anise: Anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antifungal, anthelmintic, insecticidal, expectorant, sedative, gastroprotective and antinociceptive, etc. (Patra et al. 2020, Wang et al. 2011). I also used Star anise in tea and it did sooth my sore throat. Citrus peel had a stronger mucus thinning (expectorant) effect for me.
  • Spearmint: Antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, biopesticidal, larvicidal, anticancer, radioprotective effect, genotoxicity, and antidiabetic activities, etc. (Mahendran and Rahman 2020).
  • Mango powder: Antimicrobial, antitumor, antidiabetic, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory activities, antipyretic, antiallergic hepatoprotective, etc. (Gupta et al. 2010, Kabir et al. 2017)
  • See the article pdf (Khanal et al, 2021, (9)) for more herbs, spices and foods and their phytonutrient content and their medicinal benefits. (9)

Nicotine? maybe yes.

Nicotine itself may have health benefits, especially for some genetic types – it is the smoking that is particularly a cancer risk. Nicotine may help block the spike protein. – more to this – will add later. link of interest: Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Involvement in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Interactions with Gut Microbiota. (11)

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Reference List

  1. A Phase 1/2/3, Placebo-Controlled, Randomized, Observer-Blind, Dose-finding Study to Evaluate the Safety, Tolerability, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of SARS-COV-2 RNA Vaccine Candidates Against COVID-19 in Healthy Individuals. Nov 2020, Pfizer – BioNTech, PF-07302048 (BNT162 RNA-Based COVID-19 Vaccines) Protocol C4591001 https://media.tghn.org/medialibrary/2020/11/C4591001_Clinical_Protocol_Nov2020_Pfizer_BioNTech.pdf
  2. Associated Press Staff, ‘Vaccine shedding’: No, COVID-19 vaccine does not spread by inhalation or skin contact. May 19, 2021, ChicagoTribune.com, https://www.chicagotribune.com/coronavirus/vaccine/ct-aud-nw-vaccine-shedding-20210519-iqi4fskovrcnfnsb5suaodd7n4-story.html
  3. Dr. Liji Thomas, MD, Dandelion extract inhibits SARS-CoV-2 in vitro. March 23, 2021, medical.net https://www.news-medical.net/news/20210323/Dandelion-extract-inhibits-SARS-CoV-2-in-vitro.aspx
  4. Hoai Thi Thu Tran, Nguyen Phan Khoi Le, Michael Gigl, Corinna Dawid, Evelyn Lamy. Common dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) efficiently blocks the interaction between ACE2 cell surface receptor and SARS-CoV-2 spike protein D614, mutants D614G, N501Y, K417N and E484K in vitro. bioRxiv 2021.03.19.435959; doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.03.19.435959 https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.03.19.435959v1
  5. Eric Orr, Pine Needle Tea – Natural Source of Vitamin C. wildedible.com https://www.wildedible.com/pine-needle-tea-natural-vitamin-c
  6. MockingbirdMeadows, Pine Needle Tea, Suramin, and COVID Shots. May 11, 2021, mockingbirdeadows.com, https://mockingbirdmeadows.com/2021/05/11/pine-needle-tea-suramin-and-covid-shots/
  7. Singh, A., D’Amico, D., Andreux, P.A. et al. Direct supplementation with Urolithin A overcomes limitations of dietary exposure and gut microbiome variability in healthy adults to achieve consistent levels across the population. Eur J Clin Nutr (2021). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-021-00950-1 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41430-021-00950-1
  8. Wenzhi Tan, Piera Pasinelli, Davide Trotti, Role of mitochondria in mutant SOD1 linked amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) – Molecular Basis of Disease, Vol 1842;8, 2014, pp 1295-1301, ISSN 0925-4439, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbadis.2014.02.009. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925443914000489
  9. Asmita Khanal, Hari Prasad Devkota, Sammodavardhana Kaundinnyayana, Prakash Gyawali, Ravindra Ananda, Rameshwar Adhikari. Culinary herbs and spices in Nepal: A review of their traditional uses, chemical constituents, and pharmacological activities. Ethnobotany Research and Applications, Vol 21, 2021 http://ethnobotanyjournal.org/index.php/era/article/view/2753
  10. Me64_p71, Analysis of a Covid-19 vaccinated person. June 12, 2021, substack.com, https://me64p71b7e.substack.com/p/analysis-of-a-covid-19-vaccinated?r=hjhk4&utm_campaign=post&utm_medium=web&utm_source=copy
  11. Lola Rueda Ruzafa, José Luis Cedillo, and Arik J. Hone. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Involvement in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Interactions with Gut Microbiota. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health2021, 18(3), 1189; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031189 https://www.mdpi.com/1660-4601/18/3/1189/htm
  12. Jeffrey Lubell, Nearly 2/3rds of Survey Respondents Report Large Benefits from High-Dose Thiamine (B-1). June 2, 2021, healthrising.org https://www.healthrising.org/blog/2021/06/02/fibromyalgia-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-benefit-high-dose-thiamine/
  13. Jeffrey Lubell, Could High-Dose Thiamine (B-1) Help with ME/CFS, Fibromyalgia, and the Neurological Complications of Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome?, April 15, 2021, healthrising.org, https://www.healthrising.org/blog/2021/04/15/thiamine-b-1-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-fibromyalgia/
  14. Benfotiamine, alzdiscovery.org, https://www.alzdiscovery.org/cognitive-vitality/ratings/benfotiamine

Tamarind Powder, Nrf2, and Soup flavoring notes

Really good flavor in today’s batch of soup – notes for the virtual record:

I didn’t measure anything in measuring cups or spoons, so roughly, to one basic batch of soup which includes onion, garlic, celery, carrot, sweet potato and today, pinto beans green beans – written in the order that they are added to the cooking time process:

  • I also used several large bay leaves,
  • approximately 1 tablespoon of Rosemary,
  • 2 tablespoons of ground Cumin,
  • 2 tablespoons of ground Coriander,
  • 1-2 Tablespoons of Tamarind Powder dissolved in some cold water in a small bowl – it tends to clump
  • 1 generous teaspoon Oregano
  • 1 generous teaspoon Sage

All of the ingredients would likely have health benefits and contain beneficial phytonutrients and other vitamins and minerals.

I’ve mentioned a few in the past but haven’t mentioned Tamarind Powder/fruit paste. It has been shown to have medicinal benefits and adds a slightly sweet tartness to foods. It also contains some beneficial fibers which is likely why it tends to clump when I add it directly to a batch of hot soup. It can be purchased as a paste or a dry powder. If purchased in a more whole form the small seeds need to be removed before use. It is a common ingredient in India and can be found in Indian food grocery stores. The paste dissolves better in the hot liquid or sometimes is used to make a sweetened beverage. While the powder may be easier to dissolve in a small bowl where you can continue stir more vigorously until no lumps remain. Tamarind Seed Powder: (1)

Polyphenols in Tamarind Seed Powder have been found beneficial for promoting Nrf2 and reducing oxidative stress. The seeds are edible and are dried and used similarly to lentils/beans. (2) The powder I used is called Tamarind Powder and may just contain the dried fruit. The fruit pulp, leftover from processing, was analyzed and found to contain yellow flavonoids and  polyphenols, (3), both of which are in a group of phytonutrients that may promote our own production of Nrf2 – which can help a variety of chronic health conditions. See this previous post for more information about the potential health benefits and phytonutrients that may promote Nrf2: Nrf2 helps activate beneficial genes that are protective against inflammatory conditions.

The basic bean soup recipe is described in this previous post:   New Year, new recipes.

or at the end of this webpage: G8: Cookies and Bean Soup.

Search result somewhat unrelated to cooking soup – tamarind and pomegranate have low residue tolerance limits for glyphosate (0.2 ppm) compared to wheat, milling fractions other than flour (20 ppm) : https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/galangal – scroll down to the article in the lower right corner – Richard P. Pohanish, in Sittig’s Handbook of Pesticides and Agricultural Chemicals (Second Edition), 2015

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

  1. adachigroup, Medicinal Benefits of Tamarind Seed Powder, Sept. 26, 2013, https://adachigroup.wordpress.com/2013/09/26/tamarind-seed-powder/
  2. Nurhanani Razali, Sarni Mat Junit, Azhar Ariffin, Nur Siti Fatimah Ramli and Azlina Abdul Aziz, Polyphenols from the extract and fraction of T. indica seeds protected HepG2 cells against oxidative stress, BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine (2015) 15:438. https://bmccomplementalternmed.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s12906-015-0963-2
  3. Larissa Morais Ribeiro da Silva, Evania Altina Teixeira de Figueiredo, Nagila Maria Pontes Silva Ricardo, Icaro Gusmao Pinto Vieira, Raimundo Wilane de Figueiredo, Isabella Montenegro Brasil, Carmen L. Gomes., Quantification of bioactive compounds in pulps and by-products
    of tropical fruits from Brazil., Food Chemistry 143 (2014) 398–404. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/82174064.pdf

 

Cannabinoids and Alzheimer’s Disease

The body needs carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, trace minerals, and phospholipids and many other chemicals that can be made within the body if it is well-nourished and has average genetic and youthful abilities. That is a lot to expect from a body and a nutritionist can be a helpful expert to have on your team.

It is 420 day – a typical day in some circles to discuss or celebrate cannabinoids – so some celebratory news – cannabinoids have been shown to help breakdown the clumps of protein that lead to Alzheimer’s Disease – and the good news from my research for everyone who prefers to keep their distance from cannabis/marijuana itself is that cannabinoids are part of cell membranes and can be found in many foods in small quantities and in a few foods in larger quantities.   https://www.medicalmarijuanainc.com/dr-titus-insights-alzheimers-research-work-dr-schubert/ – According to this article $200 billion is spent on Alzheimer’s Disease care every year. That would buy a lot of pumpkin seeds.

The article also includes the number 192 – the number of pharmaceutical chemicals that have been anticipated and tested in hope of a cure or effective treatment for Alzheimer’s Disease that have ultimately not been successful. One hundred and ninety two chemicals tested, one hundred and ninety two chemicals found ineffective – cannabinoids however have been found effective at helping the body to naturally break down the tau and  beta-amyloid protein clumps that lead to brain damage and later symptoms of dementia in Alzheimer’s Disease and a few other neurological conditions including traumatic brain injuries and autism. (links re tau/amyloid in autism & Alzheimers) (links re tau/amyloid protein in traumatic brain injury)

So I personally don’t want to wait for number 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 199 and 200 in hopes that a patent protected chemical treatment can be found to substitute for our body’s natural abilities – I would rather eat pumpkin seeds and other phospholipid rich foods today. Ibuprofen is a pharmaceutical that is no longer covered by a patent and it has been found to be beneficial in protecting against Alzheimer’s Disease (link: https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2018/03/180326140239.htm) and the underlying reason is likely that ibuprofen prevents the break down of cannabinoids (book excerpt)(a variety of links) – but you need cannabinoids first and some people might no longer be able to make them after a certain age or state of health or may never have been able to make them as well due to genetic differences.

So celebrate protecting your brain today by eating pumpkin seeds, cardamom spice, Rosemary, chocolate, or leafy green vegetables. – the brightly colored tiny inner part of a piece of corn that you can see when eating corn on the cob is also a good source.

Another source of a variety of beneficial phytonutrients that we tend to discard instead of eating is the white part around oranges and grapefruit – don’t worry about trimming it all away because it is good for us and mild in flavor. The tougher peel also has beneficial nutrients but it is strongly flavored and can be used in tiny amounts to add a lemony flavor to foods, either freshly grated as lemon or orange zest, or it can be purchased in Middle Eastern grocery markets as powdered dried lemon or lime (Citron vert Seche moulu or Limon seco molido, or Arabic, see example). For maximal flavor add the dried lemon or lime after cooking at the table. The flavor rich terpenes that give the lemony flavor can be effected by long cooking times. The boiling point of limonene is 348.8°F.

Disclosure: This information is being provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of Fair Use. While I am a Registered Dietitian is is not intended to provide individualized health care guidance. Please seek an individual health care professional for the purpose of individualized health care guidance. Thanks.