Chloroquine medications are dangerous, many medications are dangerous especially if taken in too large a dose. Chloroquines are typically used to treat malaria, a condition caused by a parasite. The mechanism of action is that the chemical can hold onto the mineral zinc and carry it into an infected cell where the zinc disrupts the replication of proteins, causing less virus replication. (6) It has been mentioned as a medication that potentially may be helpful for treating patients with the novel coronavirus that is currently causing a pandemic.
The chloroquine medications are also used by autoimmune patients and supplies of the drug are limited. Increasing production is a goal but will likely take some time. (7) There are other safer alternatives available in foods or phytonutrient extracts (1, 8, 9) that have an immune modulating effect – promoting removal of infected or damaged cells while also inhibiting an overactive immune response.
People with a heart condition may also be at more risk of dangerous side effects if taking chloroquines. The medication also needs to be given with zinc to be as effective as possible. The food or phytonutrient alternatives would also need to be used with zinc in the diet or added as a supplement. (1, 8, 9)
***** ONLY TAKE PRESCRIPTION MEDICATIONS THAT ARE PRESCRIBED FOR YOU BY YOUR OWN MEDICAL PROFESSIONAL *****
***** ONLY EAT FOOD *****
Someone is dead because they consumed a household product containing chloroquine because they thought it might protect them from coronavirus infection, (10), – dead is not infectable by a virus, but dead is also dead.
Quercetin plus zinc is also an antiviral that works as a zinc ionophore, (1), however it is readily available in some common foods or as a supplement and is nontoxic to cells. (1, 2) The zinc is disrupting protein replication within the infected cell so the virus can not be replicated to spread to other cells, for more replication, more infecting other cells, more replication, etcetera.
Onions are the richest source of quercetin (4) and citrus peel is also a very rich source. (3) Pumpkin seeds are the richest source of zinc in a vegetarian diet and is commonly available in meats in a non-vegetarian diet.
Pomegranate peel extract or the inner white membrane of a pomegranate is also a source of quercetin and another phytonutrient that acts as a zinc ionophore (epigallichatechin-gallate). (1) It also would be nontoxic to healthy cells and low risk compared to the chloroquine medications. (2) However it can have some side effects, acting as a diuretic and has COX2 inhibition activity. (recent post, older post) A tablespoon or two of the liquid extract or inner white membrane can be enough to provide some health benefits for an adult. (G13: Preparation & Benefits of Pomegranate)
Onions, citrus peel, pomegranate peel – we have choices, safe choices, to help our body’s own defense system stop the coronavirus. Chloroquines do not kill coronavirus – it helps our own defense system do its job – but with more risk to healthy cells, and normal function than onions, citrus peel or pomegranate peel or quercetin supplements. Zinc is a trace mineral which we need in small amounts, a larger dose taken for a week or two would be unlikely to build up to toxic amounts but please be aware that in large doses a zinc supplement could become toxic.
Eat food – that is what our body is designed for. If the GI tract is inflamed and the idea of eating food is no longer appealing due to pain or constant diarrhea than please see the recent post: ACE2, Diarrhea, & COVID19 – it gets complicated. and try to eat small servings of something that might help heal and stop the inflammatory reaction in the intestinal tract.
If nausea and vomiting are also symptoms, hold off on the food and just sip water that has a dash of lemon or lime juice or apple cider vinegar. Those all have a type of acid that is similar to stomach acid. In cases of severe nausea even plain water can be unsettling and larger amounts of anything can be a problem. Start gradually with small sips of the lemon water, or a lime or lemon popsicle may be soothing and not cause more vomiting.
Once feeling better some of the mucilaginous or hydrolyzable tannin foods mentioned in the recent post (ACE2, Diarrhea…) can help replace the mucous lining that coats the intestinal tract during times of health. It also serves as a defense system, helping to prevent entry of virus or other pathogens into the body between intestinal cells. And white blood cells patrol the area and actively defend against pathogens.
Pomegranate peel also provides hydrolyzable tannins if the white membrane is used in prepared foods like a bean soup (G8: Cookies & Bean Soup/recipes) or sweet potato dish. Pomegranate peel and citrus peel and onions (less so) are also sources of vitamin C which also helps our body’s natural anti-viral defenses. (5)
Addition: Table of drugs and phytonutrients that are being investigated for use as a COVID19 treatment, (@rubbersoul23,Eric/table) based on A SARS-CoV-2-Human Protein-Protein Interaction Map Reveals Drug Targets and Potential Drug-Repurposing, March 23, 2020, (biorxiv.org)
Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of Fair Use. It is not intended to provide individual guidance. Please seek a health care provider for individualized health care guidance.
Husam Dabbagh-Bazarbachi , Gael Clergeaud, Isabel M Quesada, et al., Zinc Ionophore Activity of Quercetin and Epigallocatechin-Gallate: From Hepa 1-6 Cells to a Liposome Model. J Agric Food Chem, 62 (32), 8085-93 2014 Aug 13. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/25050823/
Houston DMJ, Bugert JJ, Denyer SP, Heard CM. Potentiated virucidal activity of pomegranate rind extract (PRE) and punicalagin against Herpes simplex virus (HSV) when co-administered with zinc (II) ions, and antiviral activity of PRE against HSV and aciclovir-resistant HSV [published correction appears in PLoS One. 2017 Nov 20;12 (11):e0188609]. PLoS One. 2017;12(6):e0179291. Published 2017 Jun 30. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0179291 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5493292/
Kim Y, Kim H, Bae S, et al. Vitamin C Is an Essential Factor on the Anti-viral Immune Responses through the Production of Interferon-α/β at the Initial Stage of Influenza A Virus (H3N2) Infection. Immune Netw. 2013;13(2):70–74. doi:10.4110/in.2013.13.2.70 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3659258/
Eva Schrezenmeier, Thomas Dörner, Mechanisms of action of hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine: implications for rheumatology. Nat Rev Rheumatol 16, 155–166 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41584-020-0372-x https://www.nature.com/articles/s41584-020-0372-x
Wang T1, Men R1, Hu M, et al., Protective effects of Punica granatum (pomegranate) peel extract on concanavalin A-induced autoimmune hepatitis in mice. Biomed Pharmacother. 2018 Apr;100:213-220. doi: 10.1016/j.biopha.2017.12.110. Epub 2018 Feb 9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29428670
The concern about the Coronavirus outbreak is valid as the infection seems more dangerous than a winter flu season. People who smoke or have a chronic lung condition, or are elderly or have other chronic conditions, or who are obese, may be at increased risk of having a more severe case of Coronavirus.
Symptoms can be non-noticeable or similar to a cold or mild flu. Digestive symptoms might occur in addition to lung symptoms, dry, non-productive cough, and chest pain, hot and cold feverish chills, and extreme tiredness. Smoking increases risk of lung symptoms developing into pneumonia. Recovery seems to take longer than for a cold or flu with some people needing hospital care for weeks with a ventilator for breathing. (World/national Coronavirus Statistics) Approximately 2-14 days from exposure to symptom onset, gradually developing symptoms with a cough and chest discomfort, fever, and shortness of breath/difficulty breathing being common symptoms. (Graphic by Robert Roy Britt)
Some people may be infectious without having developed symptoms yet, or at all possibly for the 20-29 year old age bracket based on South Korea’s more extensive testing of their population. (graphic-South Korea & Italy rates of COVID-19)
People seem to be most contagious before symptom onset and in the first week of illness. (link) Twenty days infectious is average and generally is reduced by the time coughing symptoms are over. Thirtyseven days infectious is the longest measured. (Zhou et al., 2020) Wearing a face mask while infectious might help protect others but is generally not recommended as necessary for people who are not sick. A Public Service video about reducing rate of infection by hand washing, staying home, focusing on not infecting others while we don’t know who might be contagious but not showing symptoms yet. (@thejuicemedia)
Contagion risk also seems worse than the flu or a cold as the virus can survive on surfaces longer than average, possibly a week or more. Respiratory droplets may be the usual route of infection however there also may be a risk of infection from an infected person’s bowel movement. Thorough hand washing with soap and plenty of water is more likely to disrupt the cell membrane of virus and remove them physically than depending on hand sanitizers which are designed for bacteria not virus.
Alcohol in the hand sanitizer may also be drying to the skin which also can increase risk of open sores which can allow infection to enter the body more easily. Moisturize with a hand lotion while the skin is still damp to seal in some of the water. Hand lotions don’t replace moisture, they add to an oily coating on the skin that helps prevent moisture loss.
Strengthening Immune Function – food and nutrients, rest, and water, cut down on sweets, increase positive thinking & stress coping habits.
*Nutrition is not a guarantee of not becoming infected with something but it can increase the likelihood of not becoming infected or not developing as severe symptoms, as seen in the Ebola outbreak (see embedded link) and with research on vitamin D and respiratory infection rate (see video link).
Sugar and high fructose corn syrup generally reduce immune health and may provide simple calories that support infectious microbes more than our own health. (Defeating the Coronavirus with Immunity & Hydrotherapy, Dr. Eddie Ramirez, Youtube)
Sleep helps the body recover and cope with healing or fighting infection.
Water is essential for the body to be able to have a thin protective layer of mucous in which white blood cells can more easily find and remove infected cells.
Positive feelings of hope and love are more likely to support health than fear and anxiety. Doris Day’s attitude in the song lyric may be more helpful, “Whatever will be, will be, que sera sera,” along with common sense health habits.
Vitamin C and/or zinc lozenges may be soothing for the throat and help immune function. Elderberry is also rich in antioxidants and may also be available in immune supporting lozenges.
The white pithy membrane of an orange peel has beneficial phytonutrients and is also fairly mild like the inner peel of a pomegranate. Use a vegetable peeler or sharp knife to trim off just the outer layer of orange zest and then the sweetness of the orange sections will taste okay along with the white membrane.
The orange peel pith contains a phytonutrient, nobiletin, that may help with weigh loss too. (Orange Juice Molecule May ‘Drastically’ Reduce Obesity, Arterial Placque, slashgear.com)
Nobiletin is a chemical that promotes our circadian cycles and may be protective against metabolic syndrome. Genetic studies on animals suggest that differences in the CLOCK circadian protein can cause symptoms of metabolic syndrome – obesity, high blood lipids and blood sugar, low insulin levels, fatty liver, and respiratory uncoupling. (He, et al, 2016) Respiratory uncoupling changes the way mitochondria produce energy and if the changes continue for long may lead to worse dysfunction of the mitochondria which may lead to cancer (Seyfried, et al, 2014), or other chronic health problems. (Ruiz-Ramirez, et al., 2016) Research with nobiletin as a cancer treatment suggests that it stops cancer growth by deactivating cancerous genes. (plantmedicines.org)
Orange peel extract has also been studied for use against Coronavirus and it helped reduce replication of the virus. (Ulasli, et al., 2014)
Chen Pi, dried tangerine peel, is a traditional Chinese medicinal product sold as an anti-viral and digestive support. (alibaba.com/Chen Pi) Improving bioaccessibility of nobiletin with peanut protein nanoparticle encapsulation, for anti-cancer potential as a medication: (Ning, et al., 2019) Chen Pi is traditionally used as a digestive aid and for respiratory conditions that involve too much thick mucous. Chen Pi is thought to help thin the mucous and promote a more productive cough. (esgreen.com/Chen Pi)
Other immune supporting nutrients that may help against a Coronavirus infection include Nrf2 promoting sulfarophane and resveratrol. Elderberry is a good source of anthocyanins and other antioxidant phenols, blueberries and black beans would also be rich sources. Zinc and selenium are minerals with antioxidant function. (selenium sources) Having adequate Vitamin A and D is essential for immune function. NAC and lipoic acid are antioxidants. Nrf2 pathways increase our own internal production of antioxidants. (Other foods: Nrf2 Promoting Foods)
Both high dose vitamin C and zinc are listed as potential therapeutics for treatment of patients with COVID-19 and Chloroquine, the anti-malarial that was found helpful for treatment of the infection in China, is a zinc ionophore. (14) Zinc ionophores help with autophagy and apoptosis – the killing and engulfing of infected cells by white blood cells. (15)
Cytokine Storm Syndrome & Vitamin C Infusion, — webinar for medical professionals.
An over-reaction of the immune system called Cytokine Storm Syndrome or sepsis shock can be the cause of death from COVID-19 infection rather than the breathing problems and pneumonia symptoms. Some people may be more genetically at risk of having the inflammatory over-production of cytokines. (Cytokine Storm Syndrome/genetics) They are involved in killing infected cells but an excess can cause organ failure and lead to death. Intravenous Vitamin C Infusion can be safe and nontoxic for treating sepsis shock (Fowler 2014) and may improve survival rates (ScienceDaily) and is a strategy that was used in Wuhan, China for COVID-19 patients. (Video update by Dr. Cheng) (Clinical Trial/Peng) (Protocol used in China for Vitamin C Infusion IV treatment) A free webinar for medical professionals is being offered March 26 regarding Intravenous Vitamin C Infusion for COVID-19 treatment, see this for registration information. The webinar is now available as a video that can be viewed at any time, see the website: isom.ca. The Vitamin C Infusion technique is being used for COVID19 patients in a large hospital chain in New York, based on the improved survival rate seen in Shanghai China, (NYPost)
Patients from Wuhan with COVID-19 who were in the ICU had more cytokines, (“IL2, IL7, IL10, GSCF, IP10, MCP1, MIP1A, and TNFα.”, (Huang, et al, 2020)), than patients who weren’t sick enough to be admitted to the ICU. Other possible guidance to check for cytokine storm besides the cytokine levels is C-Reactive Protein and serum ferritin levels. (Teachey 2016) The medication Anakinra may be treatment. (comment)
From a nutrition care perspective – the Nrf2 promoting foods also tend to inhibit the inflammatory NfKb pathway which leads to increased production of TNFalpha and other cytokines.
Chloroquine phosphate, 500 mg BID, was used as a treatment in China per a comment on a medical site. (Detailed document with specific recommendations, may be helpful medication as a preventive or treatment.) It is an anti-malarial drug. and the virus seems to be interfering with heme in red blood cells, a little similar to malaria taking over red blood cells. ( Dr’s summary; and his ref list) Artemisinin is an extract of the herb woodruff that is used to treat malaria. It is available as an herbal supplement. (nobelprizemedicine/pdf)
With a new strain of virus we are learning how to treat it and how it spreads and being brand new, no one has immunity against it. Being a coronavirus puts it in the same group as colds and flus which can mutate slightly and we can catch the illness more than once.
The COVID-19 may also be able to be infectious to people who already recovered. (LATimes) The cases of reinfection may also be the same infection in the patient seeming to get better and then relapsing again.
Prevention is safest. Wash hands and surfaces thoroughly and regularly. Soap, water, and scrubbing physically helps break down virus membranes and remove the virus from skin and other surfaces. Hand sanitizer is not more effective than thoroughly washing with soap and water. antibacterial ingredients are designed against bacteria, not virus.
Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.
“Supplements thought to be useful in the prevention of coronavirus infection include NAC, elderberry, spirulina, beta-glucan, glucosamine, selenium, zinc, lipoic acid, sulforaphane, resveratrol, vitamin D, Bifidobacterium bifidum strain probiotics and sporebiotics. ”
Origins – not a bat in China, genetically traced to the US around Aug/Oct 2019.
*That link includes some speculation about origins of the current Coronavirus strain – supporting the immune system and reducing infection rate and severity of disease is necessary whether the strain was from bats in the wild or a lab or from a lab manipulation of a strain from bats – saving lives needs to be a goal now.
(statement from Robert Kennedy Jr) “He [Taiwan Virologist] demonstrated that only the US has all the five known strains of the virus (while Wuhan and most of China have only one, as do Taiwan and South Korea, Thailand and Vietnam, Singapore, and England, Belgium and Germany), constituting a thesis that the haplotypes in other nations may have originated in the US. Korea and Taiwan have a different haplotype of the virus than China, perhaps more infective but much less deadly, which would account for a death rate only 1/3 that of China. [*so infection rates from South Korea may not be represent the risk for all ares] Neither Iran nor Italy were included in the above tests, but both countries have now deciphered the locally prevalent genome and have declared them of different varieties from those in China, which means they did not originate in China but were of necessity introduced from another source. It is worth noting that the variety in Italy has approximately the same fatality rate as that of China, three times as great as other nations, while the haplotype in Iran appears to be the deadliest with a fatality rate of between 10% and 25%. (7) (8) (9)” (globalresearch.ca) (news stories). (transcript of a video) There seems to be at least two strains, more information is needed to understand the significance of that (abcnews.com).
Reference List – incomplete, see links within the blogpost also.
Our changing world and growing population can benefit from changing what we put on our menu plans – change what we eat often. Fonia is a drought tolerant grain in the millet family which can be harvested in just six to eight weeks from planting and it tolerates poor soil conditions.
Fonia is native to West African countries and may also have been used by ancient Egyptian cultures as the grain has been found in archeological sites.
Fonia is cooked similarly to rice but is a smaller grain. It would be good as a hot breakfast porridge or used like rice in salads or side dishes. It is gluten free, rich in fiber, protein, magnesium, zinc, and B vitamins. For more information and a couple recipes see: “Whole Grains- Fonio,” By Jessica Levinson, Today’s Dietitian, https://www.todaysdietitian.com/newarchives/0918p12.shtml
Disclaimer: Information provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use, not intended for individual health care guidance.