Glyphosate and disruption of the protective mucus layer made by coral species.

Excerpt – glyphosate entering the ocean may chelate manganese and leave coral unable to form their protective layer of mucus containing sulfated glycoproteins: “A protective layer of mucopolysaccharides called mucus is secreted by corals, and it has been characterized as containing sulfated glycoproteins similar to chondroitin sulfate, [44] which play an important role in controlling pH and the transepithelial movement of electrolytes and water, just as is the case in vertebrate mucosa. Mucus pathology is implicated in coral disease leading to mortality, particularly in the Caribbean.[219] Thus, an interesting hypothesis that should be considered is that glyphosate chelation of Mn is a crucial factor in the worldwide coral die-off.” (Samsel, Seneff, 2015)

Manganese is important:

Vitamin D deficiency has reached epidemic proportions in the US and increasingly around the world in recent years. [124] In a large population study in the US, Bodnar et al. [34] found deficient levels of vitamin D in 83% of Black women and 92% of their newborns, as well as in 47% of White women and 66% of their newborns, despite the fact that over 90% of the women were on prenatal vitamins. This deficiency is associated with an increased risk to bone fractures, likely due to impaired calcium homeostasis. [145] It is even likely that care-takers are being falsely accused (“Shaken Baby Syndrome”) of abusing children in their care who suffer from bone fractures. [255] These children are highly vulnerable to bone fractures due to impaired bone development. Bone fractures in the elderly due to osteoporosis have also risen sharply recently in the industrialized world. [139] The cause of a surging incidence of hip fractures across multiple age groups remains a mystery to medical personnel. [140]

Samsel and Seneff [248,249] proposed that the current vitamin D deficiency epidemic is caused by glyphosate, due to glyphosate’s interference with CYP enzymes. The metabolite that is usually measured, 25-hydroxy vitamin D, is the product of activation in the liver by a CYP enzyme that is also critical in bile acid formation. However, there is a larger problem with bone development due to impaired Mn homeostasis.” (Samsel, Seneff, 2015)

Selenium is also important (selenoproteins):

Dopamine suppresses thyroid stimulating hormone, and therefore dopamine insufficiency can lead to overactive thyroid and potential burnout of the thyroid gland. [270] This problem is compounded by the fact that thyroid hormone itself is derived from tyrosine, one of the three aromatic amino acids that are negatively impacted by glyphosate through disruption of the shikimate pathway. The thyroid gland also depends critically on selenoproteins as antioxidants. [249] Glyphosate’s depletion of both selenium and methionine will lead to reduced bioavailability of selenoproteins. It is conceivable that all of these factors working together can explain the strong correlation of glyphosate application to corn and soy with thyroid cancer [Figure 7], as well as the association between maternal thyroid disease and autism. [238]” (Samsel, Seneff, 2015)

Glutathione is depleted, Manganese is needed for its production, along with other nutrients and Nrf2 promotion and/or a healthy circadian cycle:

Experiments exposing immature rats to Roundup®, whether via exposure to the dam during pregnancy and lactation or via acute exposure to the pup for 30 min, demonstrated lipid peroxidation and NMDA receptor activation in the hippocampus, indicative of oxidative stress and glutamate excitotoxicity. [59] Acute exposure increased the release of glutamate into the synaptic cleft, and depleted GSH.

Glutamine synthase depends upon Mn as a cofactor, so depleted Mn supplies would lead to a build-up of glutamate that cannot be returned to the neurons using normal channels. Multiple sclerosis is associated with both depleted Mn in the cerebrospinal fluid [185] and depleted GSH synthase in the white matter lesions. [309]” (Samsel, Seneff, 2015)

Why should we care about coral? Because we and coral have similar biological pathways. Nature loves a good design and sticks with it across the plant and animal and microbial kingdoms. Also it would be better to be good stewards of the planet, instead of being an invasive parasite that destroys everything in its path.

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Reference List

(Samsel, Seneff, 2015) Samsel A, Seneff S. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases III: Manganese, neurological diseases, and associated pathologies. Surg Neurol Int. 2015 Mar 24;6:45. doi: 10.4103/2152-7806.153876. PMID: 25883837; PMCID: PMC4392553.