Ways pomegranate protects against spike.

Includes chimeric spike gene sequences involved in fusion entry of cells, and Ehden Biber’s latest post with FOIA information from Pfizer including the Omicron BA.1 (“Riltozinameran”) genetic sequence.

Hard to understand info for non-geneticists from Ehden – thanks for sharing maybe some geneticists will translate for us: The Sequence; We now have Pfizer’s Omicron BA.1 (“Riltozinameran”) genetic sequence, alongside other important information, thanks to a FOI request to the UK’s regulatory body, the MHRA. – by Ehden Biber – Sense of Awareness (substack.com)

I had just added a gene sequence image to something I had written, and was searching posts and not finding it (and getting frustrated ;-) when I remembered where it was – Gp41 in SARS-CoV-2 spike, so here we are back with the delicious and royal fruit.

Pomegranate is so awesome it can take on a multi-fanged genetic chimera:

1) Blocks entry at the ACE2 receptors and preserves ACE2 function.

Pomegranate peel extract blocks entry at the ACE2 receptor which also helps protect the function of ACE2 receptors, and pomegranate extract also inhibited “the activity of the virus 3CL protease.” (Tito, et al, 2020) Lung edema and other symptoms of severe Covid19 are also symptoms of lack of ACE2 function. As the infection spreads to cells with ACE2, the spike blocked receptor is dysfunctional. The juice/fruit likely helps but the peel is more potent, more concentrated in phytonutrients and has additional hydrolyzable tannins.

2) Inhibits NET formation, and inflammasome creation.

Inhibits NET formation (Kirchner, et al, 2013) which would promote inflammasome production – which kills good cells when it is an over-reaction. The SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein, the E protein section, causes activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome creation, and the resulting increase in inflammation can also signal further creation of them. (Wong and Saier, 2021) An allergy like sensitization seems to occur. Macrophages from people who had been sick with COVID-19 reacted to exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and inflammasome production occurred. Cells from people who had not been pre-exposed to SARS-CoV-2 did not react to cause inflammasome creation. (Theobald, et al, 2021)

3) Inhibits fusion of HIV-1 and entry into cells by membrane fusion. It may do the same for SARS-CoV-2.

*I am not sure if “HIV-1 entry inhibitor” is the same as fusion inhibitor for preventing the splitting of S1 from the S2 portion of spike. (Neurath, et al, 2004)

  • Punica granatum (Pomegranate) juice provides an HIV-1 entry inhibitor and candidate topical microbicide.” (Neurath, et al, 2004)

If it is, pomegranate phytonutrients could inhibit the fusion cleavage site from opening and freeing the S1 subunit which then can block nAChR function and has prion like domains and a galectin-3 like sequence. So, preventing S1 release would protect cholinergic function, reduce misfolded protein risks, and reduce risk of galectin-3 over-stimulating excess angiogenesis (blood vessel formation or doubling/splitting).

It was noted by (Wu Zhang and Leng Yap, 2004) that HIV-1 gp41 and SARS-CoV(1) S2 proteins are similar in structure. The gp41 protein helps HIV-1 fuse directly with cells in order to infect them, (Chen, 2019), which SARS-CoV-2 can also do. The S2 portion of spike forms a wedge like shape and directly invades a cell’s bilipid membrane layer for the purpose of membrane-to-membrane fusion with the viral particle. The sequence “GB1” is discussed and a Spike SARS-CoV-2 Fusion peptide, see Fig. S1. (Koppisetti, Fulcher, Van Doren, 2021) If pomegranate can prevent HIV-1 membrane fusion than maybe it is preventing separation of the S1 from the S2 subunit – more research is needed.

Fig. S1. (Koppisetti, Fulcher, Van Doren, 2021)

Background info by (Wu Zhang and Leng Yap, 2004) on the roles of the two parts of a coronavirus species’ spike protein – S1 (“cellular reception recognition”) and S2 (fusion of the viral and host cell membranes for entry):

“Coronavirus spike protein plays a very important role in virus entry, virus–receptor interaction, variations in host range and tissue tropism. The S proteins of majority of coronaviruses are cleaved into two functional subunits, S1 and S2. Liu et al. [1] indicated that the S protein of SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) also forms S1 and S2 domains. The peripheral S1 portion is responsible for cellular receptor recognition, while the membrane-spanning S2 portion mediates the fusion of viral and cellular membrane, hence S protein determines the specificity of host and virulence of coronavirus [2]. Similarly, there are two non-valently associated subunits in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein, gp120 and gp41, gp120 directs target-cell recognition and viral tropism through interaction with the cell-surface receptor CD4, while the membrane-spanning gp41 promotes fusion of the viral and cellular membranes so that viral contents are released into the host cell [3].” (Wu Zhang and Leng Yap, 2004)

The chimeric S1 subunit can be free and effect receptors elsewhere in the body or be released in exosomes in exhaled breath or sweat, and body fluids. It has the snake venom toxin-like nAChR cholinergic blocking effect and has a galectin-3 look alike sequence. Preventing S1 separation would reduce harm.

4) Acts as a modulator for inflammation & immune function,, promoting or inhibiting as needed for the situation.

Acts as a modulator and can increase Nitric oxide production if low or reduce Nitric oxide production if it excessive. Modulatory benefits for oxidative stress – pomegranate peel can help increase Nitric oxide by promoting eNOS (Delgado, et al, 2017), (de Nigris, et al, 2007a), (Wang D, et al, 2018), or reduce excess by promoting iNOS. (Kandeil, et al, 2019)

5) Protects against misfolded protein conditions.

Protects against misfolded protein conditions – the delphinidin (Noda, et al, 2002) and other anthocyanidins (Masci, et al, 2016), (Qu, et al, 2015) that give pomegranate its purple red hue, may help stabilize proteins as allosteric modulators and many phytonutrients or nutrients can act on receptors as agonists or reverse agonist (less often). (Silva, et al, 2019)

6) Promotes Nrf2 which helps promote DNA damage repair, glutathione production, and immune function.

Promotes Nrf2 which helps promote glutathione production, immune function, and DNA damage repair and inhibits inflammatory cytokines including IL-6 (Karwasra, et al, 2019) and NFkB. (Rasheed, et al, 2009). Nrf2 and pomegranate peel inhibit mast cell degranulation which would reduce inflammation, cytokines, and histamine. (Parisio, et al, 2020) Antihistamines tend to help in CoV treatment. Nrf2 inhibits mast cell degranulation by promoting SIRT4. (Hu B et al, 2020)

7) Contains potent antioxidants in addition to promoting Nrf2 and our own glutathione production.

Pomegranate peel contains potent antioxidants and diuretics (the tannins/EGCG/catechins) which help with detox – have several servings earlier in the day if ill and drink plenty of water, or once a day as a preventive.

The fruit juice and seeds provide some of the benefits for reducing inflammation and protecting the brain, but the peel contains more of the phytonutrients with potent antiviral and antioxidant function. Antioxidant power so strong, pomegranate peel extract can be used as an anti-corrosive for steel. (Rashid, et al, 2017) Too much is a pro-oxidant, use in moderate amounts. The diuretic effect is a clue when you may be getting too much, or just a good amount if puffiness is a problem.

8) Protects against liver, kidney, and brain damage risks from hyperinflammation.

Protects against liver, kidney, (Middha, et al, 2013) and brain damage risks from (spike) hyperinflammation. (Ahmed, et al, 2014) (Morzelle, et al, 2016) With a healthy microbiome, metabolites urolithin A and B can cross the blood brain barrier and reduce neuroinflammation. (Kujawska, et al, 2019) EGCG helps promote new growth of hippocampal cells. (Itika, et al, 2020) Urolithin A may be helpful against aging, metabolic dysfunction, IBD, and neurodegenerative disorders by promoting mitophagy and removal of defective mitochondria leading to improved health of mitochondria. (Singh, et al, 2022)

Species that help produce urolithin A and B may include Firmicutes, Clostridiales and Ruminococcaceae family and Akkermansia muciniphlia. Having more Bacteroides in ratio to Firmicutes was associated with non-production of urolithin A in response to 8 oz of pomegranate juice. A 500 mg supplement product, MitoPure, led to much greater increases in plasma levels of urolithin than the juice, in a crossover self-controlled clinical study. (Singh, et al, 2022)

Firmicutes are the main butyrate producing species, Ruminococcaceae also produce it, and Akkermansia muciniphlia produce other short-chain fatty acids. They are anaerobes fermenting undigested starches within the colon and the short chain fatty acids help feed the colon cells. (Parada Venegas, et al, 2019) *Probiotics provide species that populate the small intestines. We need to eat adequate resistant starches and zinc to support the anaerobe of the colon.

9) Improves gut health, membrane and cardiovascular health and promotes a beneficial microbiome balance of butyrate producing species.

Improves gut health, (Zhang, et al, 2017) membrane health, and cardiovascular health. (Wang et al, 2018)  (Sadeghipour, et al, 2014) (Salwe, et al, 2015) . (Yang, et al, 2018) (Asgary, et al, 2017). Improved endothelial function in the placenta for a diabetic pregnancy animal model, eNOS -/- knockout mice and wild-type were used. (El-Sayyad, et al, 2019)

  • Tip – think of skin health, gut health and blood vessel/cardiovascular health as all connected – similar tissue, slightly different issues.

Promotes balance between Firmicutes and Bacteroides species, butyrate producing microbial species in the gut. Excess Firmicutes is associated with obesity and excess Bacteroides with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Pomegranate led to a decrease in Firmicutes in an animal-based study about a gut pathogen. (George, et al, 2019)

  • “These results suggest that consumption of pomegranate polyphenols altered the microbiome, making it more resistant to displacement by infection with Cr, indicating that pomegranate polyphenols may mitigate the pathogenic effects of food‐borne bacterial pathogens.” (George, et al, 2019)

When we protect our gut, we are also protecting our brain, because they are connected via the large vagus nerve. It can act as a superhighway and allow chemicals to enter the brain from the gut or enter the gut from the brain. Parkinson’s Disease seems to involve this connection. Pomegranate peel extract helped a brain inflammation condition by modulation of the species in the gut. (Lu, et al, 2020)

  • “Pomegranate peel extract ameliorates the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via modulation of gut microbiota.” (Lu XY, et al, 2020)

Promotes the microbiome. Sepsis – did not help in one animal model. Pretreatment for a month with pomegranate may have increased gut microbiome leaving the animals at increased risk of sepsis effects when surgery was performed.  (Tavasoli, et al, 2014)

Pomegranate in a market. Photo by Jonas Renner on Unsplash.

Summary: The juice/fruit provide many of these benefits but not all, the peel is more potent in the anti-viral & other benefits.

  1. Pomegranate peel extract blocks entry at the ACE2 receptors and preserves ACE2 function.
  2. Inhibits NET formation which leads to (killer) inflammasome creation.
  3. Inhibits fusion of HIV-1 and entry into cells by membrane fusion. It may do the same for SARS-CoV-2.
  4. Acts as a modulator for inflammation and immune function, promoting or inhibiting as needed for the situation – restoring balance.
  5. Protects against misfolded protein conditions (prions).
  6. Promotes Nrf2 which helps promote DNA damage repair, glutathione production, and immune function.
  7. Pomegranate contains potent antioxidants in addition to promoting Nrf2 and our own glutathione production.
  8. Protects against liver, kidney, and brain damage risks from hyperinflammation.
  9. Improves gut health, membrane and cardiovascular health; and promotes a beneficial microbiome balance of butyrate producing species.
  10. The juice/fruit provide many of these benefits but not all, the peel is more potent in the anti-viral benefits.

Ellagic acid/EGCG alternatives:

If pomegranate/peel is not available to you, then sumac/Zataar contains similar phytonutrients and so do Goji berries, and red raspberries a smaller amount and maybe black raspberries too: “The seeds of raspberries contained 87.8% of the ellagic acid,” (Daniel, et al, 1989), strawberries had more in the pulp than the seeds. Green tea also contains some of the catechin benefits ~ 3 cups per day provides about 200 mg of EGCG which is a typical amount found in supplements of EGCG. If gut issues are also an issue though, green tea may cause discomfort due to the oxalate content.

We should listen to Geert Vanden Bossche, PhD, DVM:

  • Geert says we need to treat everyone prophylactically to stop breakthrough infections & slow the mutation rate. (substack.com) a post on my SubCtack links to his audio/post.

Early treatment works – we need to prophylactically treat everyone with the basic Z-Stack or preferred equivalent. Preventively taking supplements means you are treating somewhat at the first exposure. Then if signs of a cold occur, increase the vitamin C and anti-viral/iron chelators like quercetin, pomegranate peel product/tea and/or black seed oil.

I also include intranasal rinse or spray, and negative ionizers for air quality control in addition. Stop the exposure in the nose where the body has IgA antibodies that react against any coronavirus. Once the RNA species reach the lung, they have mutated somewhat and are harder for the body to fight.

Negative ionizers are something that should be in public places.

Anyone in power over a facility – please see what you can do to add it. CoV spike is positively charged and will clump and fall from the air. Sweep and mop more often. Part of the risk is the air above big crowds – think of it as a circulating swamp of everyone’s mutation variants, which then all can rapidly mingle and the whole swarm can quantumly it seems, all mutate to a new (worse) variant and make the whole crowd sick. Karl Sirotkin, PhD’s work.

  • Golden Silkworms in Pandora’s Box – by Harvard2TheBigHouse (substack.com)

Pomegranate peel and fruit is an “antidote” for many diabolical features of the patented computer-generated sequence that is causing harm. It happens to be pomegranate season in the Northern Hemisphere. Are we collectively going to start using the fruit and peel for its full benefits? Or continue waiting for a rich person to suggest it? Or wait for Tedros and the WHO to use a little money to research pomegranate peel extract against SARS-CoV-2?

If you want medical doctor/researcher recommendations about the benefits of pomegranate, read this open access peer-reviewed book: Pomegranate, (IntechOpen), 2021. In a chapter on the antimicrobial benefits, Celiksoy and Heard did a phenomenal job creating extensive Tables of research trials showing antimicrobial potential of pomegranate peel extract or whole fruit extract. The Tables include which species were targeted using pomegranate extract of what dose, standardized to 13% ellagic acid, or other extraction method details are listed. (Celiksoy and Heard, 2021) It is just one Chapter in an open access peer-reviewed (long) book: Pomegranate, (IntechOpen), 2021.

Pomegranate and early treatment can work – if you use it.

It can’t work if you don’t use it.

Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

A Table – Nutrients depleted by psych meds and risk factors for schizophrenia.

My latest work is on SubStack but I am going to start copying it here too. This post is about a series I have been working on regarding underlying risk factors about schizophrenia.

  • This post is the beginning of the series about my proposed clinical trial: Schizophrenia risk factors may also be Alzheimer’s risk factors; Experimental design and variables. (substack.1).
  • This prior post discusses the issue of harm from psychiatric and other medications and has some resources. Another oversite: #21 – psych med use (substack.3).
  • And this one is related: #22 – Psychosomatic symptoms, Childhood ACE score (adverse factors). (substack.2) – The nutshell – psychosomatic symptoms may also be a problem but the overlap with schizophrenia is not significant, suggesting there is a biological basis to schizophrenia.

The second two were later in the series and are pertinent to the Table discussed below:

Since imagining a Table is not as easy as viewing a Table – a link. /*I didn’t imagine that the link wouldn’t work on my phone. (pdf in my Dropbox link)/ Verbal synopsis – a dozen medications commonly used in psychiatric care are listed with nutrients that may become depleted with ongoing use of the medication. The list of nutrients includes 23 items and there was a significant overlap with the potential causal factors I had identified regarding schizophrenia (this series: substack.1) – so I added another column to the medication Table.

The list of schizophrenia risk factors also had matched the previous list I had made for mitochondrial support. Comparing datasets can help show overlap or lack – these are different topics. Sadly, the list of nutrients depleted by psychiatric medications, the list of schizophrenia risk factors, and the list of mitochondrial support nutrients all match. That is some unhealthy math. Mitochondrial dysfunction and quantum biology disruption are likely leading people with less severe mental health problems into more severe schizophrenia and later Alzheimer’s could be the risk if the chronic nutrient deficiencies remain a problem.

Tables help us see patterns in a large amount of data and can help compare similar data sets.

  • The medication data is from the book; Antidepressants, Antipsychotics and Stimulants, by Dr. David W. Tanton, Ph.D. (2006), and is as accurate as his work was at the time.

It makes it clear though, why people who are put on psychiatric medications tend to worsen more than people who aren’t started on meds for mild depression or anxiety. It also makes it clear why quality of life for patients with schizophrenia is now worse than it was 100 years ago. The focus of care at that time was simply stabilizing healthy diet and life routines, in a care facility setting perhaps, but just care, not medications.

A healthy diet can restore physical and mental health in many cases, but it may take work to figure out what individually is healthy versus adding to inflammatory problems.

Good health is visible:

Health shows up in healthy skin and hair. Good hair day selfie, Oct. 2, 2022

And an Excerpt from my really not finished draft, about one of the other Tables viewable at the link. The paper still needs a lot of work and removing opinion excet from the Discussion section.


Pain is a signal from our body that we are doing something wrong. Pain medications to block or desensitize pain is leaving the body vulnerable to ongoing damage. Identifying the causes of pain and removing them, reduces both the pain and risk of chronic damage from inflammation. Table 10 is a snapshot of a much larger database that physicians and patients need to have created, to more easily identify triggers of inflammation in both diet and lifestyle.

Table 10 has a focus on TRP channel activators for this article about nociceptive pain, as TRP channels are so closely involved with pain signaling and the topic is new from a therapeutic diet perspective.

Hot pepper, black pepper, horseradish, ginger, turmeric, mustard, cinnamon, cloves, nutmeg, mint, and vanilla are TRP activators. Good in moderation, painful in excess. Migraine inducing or colitis flaring for hypersensitive patients.

Vanilla is calming. The TRPV1 channels can do anti-inflammatory things or send pain signals depending on the agonist. Trials with antagonists led to negative side effects from the peripheral functions of TRPV1 channels. Avoiding the activators avoids the pain or colitis flare-up.

Many types of TRP channels exist with varying agonists and those details are not included –it is a snapshot to get an idea of the size of the problem of identifying possible food triggers. From Table 10: TRP activating chemicals include: Histamine, Dopamine, Leptin, Arachidonic acid, Glutamate, cytokines, Substance P, and many others (See: Table 1, Kumar, et al, 2013) 1, 25, dihydroxy cholecalciferol-vit D. “…estrogen, androgen, testosterone, cortisol and many other steroids (Table 1)” (Kumar, et al, 2013)”

*and therefore possibly estrogen mimetic chemicals are also adding to chronic pain. 

See: Table 10. Foods Ranked by Potentially Inflammatory Categories, NF-kB promoting if sensitive; and Nrf2 promoting status otherwise* – healthy if not individually sensitized and the product was grown organically.

The TRP pain chain of events: emotional or physical stress degranulates mast cells, releasing histamine and cytokines, which activate TRP channels that send pain signals via an increase in intracellular calcium or sodium. The influx of calcium can lead to overactivity of the cell and lead to cell damage and add up to fibrotic damage over time.

ME/CFS, fibromyalgia, MCAS, Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS), Dysautonia or POTS, can all be chronic problems with little help available regarding reversing the symptoms rather than treating symptoms and coping with pain and other symptoms.

Disrupt the pain: self-calming techniques and pacing activity, avoiding TRP and histamine food triggers and vitamin A/carotenoids if Retinoid Toxicity is a problem, and wearing layered clothing to easily adjust to temperature changes, and avoiding excess EMF, etcetera; can help prevent degranulation of mast cells. Taking pomegranate products could also help inhibit mast cells and prevent more histamine from activating more TRP pain channels. Preventing the pain in the first place would be more efficient.

Doctor, it hurts when I bang my thumb with a hammer!” The doctor can give pain medication and ideally would also suggest more practice using a hammer. Knowing what is causing the pain and knowing how to stop it has more value to patients than simply treating pain. We know over-activation of TRP channels can cause pain signals. We know less about why some people seem to have more activation, or more expression of TRP channels. Childhood or chronic trauma can be causal of Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) or Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in addition to gene alleles possibly being an individual factor. Increased expression of TRPV1 channels was observed and correlated with the level of hypersensitivity inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and in patients with rectal hypersensitivity. (Hicks, 2006) (González-Ramírez , et al, 2017)

brown hammer on focus photography
Photo by Moritz Mentges on Unsplash

Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

(González-Ramírez , et al, 2017) González-Ramírez R, Chen Y, Liedtke WB, and Morales-Lázaro SL. Chapter 8: TRP Channels and Pain, Emir TLR, editor. Neurobiology of TRP Channels, Boca Raton (FL): CRC Press/Taylor & Francis; 2017. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK476120/

(Hicks, 2006) Hicks, G.A. 2006. TRP channels as therapeutic targets: Hot property, or time to cool down? Neurogastroenterol Motil, 18(8): 590–594. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2982.2006.00823.x. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/16918723/

David W Tanton, Antidepressants, Antipsychotics, And Stimulants – Dangerous Drugs on Trial. Soaring Heights, 2006, https://www.amazon.com/Antidepressants-Antipsychotics-Stimulants-Dangerous-Soaring/dp/0977270327

Aging biomarker found to be increased in LongCovid, epigenetic changes possible

Evidence of aging, five years on average, was found in survivors of Covid who experienced ongoing illness after an apparent recovery or even only ever having had mild symptoms initially. (1) Other research has found evidence of autoimmune antibodies against certain types of G-protein coupled receptors – need a different post for that.

  • Evidence for Biological Age Acceleration and Telomere 2 Shortening in Covid-19 Survivors. Alessia Mongelli, Carlo Gaetano, Michela Gottardi Zamperla, et al., medRxiv, April 27, 2021, preprint, (1)
  • The results show a consistent biological age increase in the post-covid population (mean 58,44 DS 14,66 ChronoAge Vs. mean 67,18 DS 10,86 BioAge, P<0,0001), determining a DeltaAge acceleration of 10,45 DS 7,29 years (+5.25 years above range of normality) compared to 3,68 DS 8,17 years for the COVID19-free population (P<0,0001). A significant telomere shortening parallels this finding in the post-COVID19 cohort compared to COVID19-free subjects (post-COVID19 TL: 3,03 DS 2,39 Kb vs. COVID19-free: 10,67 DS 11,69 Kb; P<0,0001).” (1)
  • Additionally, ACE2 expression was decreased in post-COVID19 patients compare to COVID19-free, while DPP-4 did not change. ” (1)

ACE2 receptor expression was expected to be decreased in patients with increased viral load due to the virus destroying the cells with the receptors. Eventually less ACE2 function would be left and patients would exhibit symptoms similar to genetic ACE2 knockout mice – bred to not have ACE 2 receptors in order to see the effect on health. It can provide information about what function something has to see what goes wrong when the animal doesn’t have it.

Also of interest – stopping the virus from entering the ACE2 receptor means that it can’t replicate and go on to infect other cells or people – pomegranate peel may block access: Pomegranate peel – anti-COVID19, may block ACE2 receptor access to the SARS-CoV-2 virus. I ate some pomegranate peel today. *Recipe at the end of this post, more information about pomegranate prep & benefits G13. Pomegranate.

Pomegranate extract reduces inflammation and modulates health and gene transcription.

Pomegranate extract, of the whole fruit or peel is a very potent anti-inflammatory and modulator of health, (6), even epigenetics to some extent – epigenetics effects which genes will be transcribed into proteins by the cell. Pomegranate extract was found to modulate/effect microRNAs which control which mRNA will get transcribed. (2)

Pomegranate extract intake reversed the surgery-mediated upregulation of various miRNAs and mildly reduced expression of selected miRNAs in tumour tissue compared with normal tissue.” (2)

What is microRNA? — “Noncoding (nc) RNAs also possess a regulatory effect on gene expression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small ncRNAs of 20–22 nt that inhibit gene expression at the posttranscriptional level either by imperfect base-pairing to the mRNA 3′-untranslated regions to repress protein synthesis, or by affecting mRNA stability (reviewed in [23]).” (2)

What is mRNA? — “Messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules carry the coding sequences for protein synthesis and are called transcripts;” (3) Messenger RNA is copied from the double helix strands of DNA that make a gene. The messenger RNA is a single helix – one ladder leg instead of both sides of the spiraling ladder with nucleotide steps, or one side of a zipper.

What is epigenetics? — “The term ‘epigenetics’ refers to modifications in gene expression caused by heritable, but potentially reversible, changes in DNA methylation and chromatin structure. Major epigenetic mechanisms include DNA hyper- and hypomethylation [11], remodelling of the chromatin, modification of histones by histone acetylation and methylation (among others), and noncoding RNAs [12].” (2)

What are methyl donors? — Folate in the bioactive methylated form and methylated B12 are both helpful for providing the methyl groups needed for DNA methylation. The small chemical group added onto genes is like turning the light switch off, that gene is no longer in the ready to be transcribed mode. Choline is another methyl donor in the B vitamin group. See: Methyl Donors & BPA.

EGCG found in Green tea & Pomegranate Peel may protect length of Telomeres.

Pomegranate peel is also a source of EGCG (more commonly associated with green tea) which has been found protective of telomere length, by inhibiting a telomerase enzyme.

Epigallocatechin-3-gallate, a major component of green tea polyphenols, downregulated expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a major enzyme determining telomere stability, through causing promoter hypomethylation and histone deacetylations, thereby inhibiting proliferation of breast cancer cells [12].” (7)

Polyphenols, alkaloids, triterpenes, and xanthones may be plant nutrients that help inhibit the overactivity of the telomerase enzyme seen in some types of cancer cells. (8) EGCG is a polyphenol. Alkaloids include “morphine, strychnine, atropine, colchicine, ephedrine, quinine, and nicotine.” (11) Triterpenes include sterols (such as vit. D group, 12) and carotenoids (vit A). (9) xanthones are found in the Garcinia, mangosteen fruit. (10) Telomeres are a section of non protein encoding DNA at the end of genes. Telomeres get shorter as we age and longer ones indicate younger metabolic age. Excessive lengthening of telomeres can occur in cancer and that isn’t good either.

The really good news about epigenetic changes – they can be changed back.

In contrast to irreversible genetic alterations (mutations, deletions, etc.), genes silenced by epigenetic modifications are still intact and can be reactivated [13,14].” (2)

Many genes are turned on or off with the change from night to day/day to night. We do more active energy using work during the day, which produces waste chemicals, and more growth and repair, clean up, at night while we sleep. It is very unhealthy to chronically miss sleep.

Sunlight in the day & blackout curtains at night help immune function with melatonin & sunshine vitamins.

Sunlight in the morning or at some point in the awake hours of the day also helps health.

People have a feeling of wellbeing when exposed to sunlight. This may be due to the fact that keratinocytes produce β-endorphin when exposed to UV radiation.67 ” (12)

A full spectrum lamp with UVB capability for a half hour of artificial “sun” during winter months or for night shift workers may be more beneficial for health, and mood, than a vitamin D2/D3 supplement. Our bodies make other forms of the vitamin D group of sterols, some water soluble, and other forms of vitamin A are also made. (12, 13)

Bright light treatment requires a minimum of 2,500 lux to be effective, & the brightness recommended by researchers & clinicians for most people is 10,000 lux – an amount significantly higher than standard indoor lighting.” (14) This reference is recommending no UV in the light treatment, however for the vitamin D and A chemistry UVB is needed and UVA may also have some role in health in moderation.

Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) lamps may not provide the UVB, and the UVB intense ones are only meant for 30 minute use or less per day, as sunburn possible, so that type of light wouldn’t treat the SAD problem in the same way as the no UVB lights. (13, 15) The 10,000 lux lamps may be helping patients with Seasonal Affective Disorder (14) by increased beta-endorphins. Serotonin increase is involved in the benefit of Bright Light Therapy (BLT) which was found to be better than placebo in a metareview. (16) Bright Light Therapy was found to reduce cerebral monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) levels which have a seasonal decrease in healthy controls compared to participants with SAD. Serotonin receptors and transport proteins may also be affected by the light treatment. (17)

Black out curtains at night and covering all little alarm clock lights and other device lights helps our body switch into night-time biology of clean-up and repair. Melatonin is also made at night and lights can reduce the amount that is made. It helps immune function and seems helpful against COVID-19. Melatonin produced in the lungs prevents infection by novel coronavirus. (18)

Lack of niacin, which is needed in increased amounts during infection or inflammation, would lead to overuse of tryptophan instead. Lack of tryptophan would lead to a lack of serotonin and melatonin, both of which are made from tryptophan. (19)

We may need a healthy gut microbiome, to have overall health.

The microbes in our intestines may have a larger role in health than we realized because they also impact our epigenetics – we want our good guys to be helping us then.

Recent research has indicated that the gut microbiota and gut microbial metabolites might be important mediators of the diet–epigenome interaction (previously reviewed in [2931]).” (2)

Obesity has been found to be related frequently to less beneficial microbiome species. (4) Anxiety can also be linked to microbiome species. (5) “Animal models strongly suggest a role for the gut microbiome in anxiety- and trauma-related disorders. The microbiota–gut–brain (MGB) axis sits at the epicenter of this new approach to mental health. The microbiome plays an important role in the programming of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis early in life, and stress reactivity over the life span.” (5)

More information about POTS & epigenetic changes:

I go into more detail about epigenetic changes, methyl donors and Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia Syndrome (POTS) – a problem that has been occurring for some Covid survivors and a problem I’ve had symptoms of twice and got better from twice – See: Epigenetic changes may also be involved in Covid19 or LongCovid. I prefer being healthy to being unhealthy and I’m willing to work to get better when I can.

Seasoned Peas and Pistachios, with Pomegranate peel.

Peas with pistachios, with cumin and coriander and a little pomegranate peel (inner pith)..

*Pound of frozen Peas, boil for a few minutes with a cup of Pistachios in water to cover the food – then pour off the water. It may contain oxalates from the pistachios. Add a 1/4 cup of fresh water to the drained food along with a half teaspoon of Cumin, Coriander and Gumbo file; one tablespoon powdered or minced dehydrated Pomegranate Peel (inner pith); and simmer with the peas & pistachios for a minute or two to set the Gumbo file thickener and mix the flavors. Serve the peas hot or cold with a little Apple Cider Vinegar and Salt to taste. Makes about four 3/4 cup servings.

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Reference List

  1. Alessia Mongelli, Carlo Gaetano, Michela Gottardi Zamperla, et al., Evidence for Biological Age Acceleration and Telomere 2 Shortening in Covid-19 Survivors. medRxiv, April 27, 2021, preprint, https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2021.04.23.21255973v1
  2. Clarissa Gerhauser, Impact of dietary gut microbial metabolites on the epigenome. Royal Society, 23 April 2018, https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0359 https://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rstb.2017.0359
  3. Ribosomes, Transcription, and Translation, nature.com/scitable https://www.nature.com/scitable/topicpage/ribosomes-transcription-and-translation-14120660/
  4. Davis CD. The Gut Microbiome and Its Role in Obesity. Nutr Today. 2016;51(4):167-174. doi:10.1097/NT.0000000000000167 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5082693/
  5. Stefanie Malan-Muller, Mireia Valles-Colomer, Jeroen Raes, et al., The Gut Microbiome and Mental Health: Implications for Anxiety- and Trauma-Related Disorders. OMICS J of Integ Biology, Vol 22, 2, 2018, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. DOI: 10.1089/omi.2017.007 https://www.liebertpub.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1089/omi.2017.0077
  6. Ceci C, Lacal PM, Tentori L, De Martino MG, Miano R, Graziani G. Experimental Evidence of the Antitumor, Antimetastatic and Antiangiogenic Activity of Ellagic Acid. Nutrients. 2018;10(11):1756. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6266224/Published 2018 Nov 14. doi:10.3390/nu10111756
  7. Yan Bian, Juntong Wei, Changsheng Zhao and Guorong Li, Natural Polyphenols Targeting Senescence: A Novel Prevention and Therapy Strategy for Cancer. Int J Mol Sci. 2020, 21, 684; https://www.dropbox.com/s/wckq66cgye3yjr4/ijms-21-00684-v3.pdf?dl=0doi:10.3390/ijms21020684
  8. Kumar Ganesan ID and Baojun Xu, Telomerase Inhibitors from Natural Products and Their Anticancer Potential. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2018, 19, 13; doi:10.3390/ijms19010013 https://www.dropbox.com/s/xjhguj3dnbop6h2/ijms-19-00013.pdf?dl=0
  9. Triterpenes, sciencedirect.com, https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/chemistry/triterpene
  10. Xanthones, sciencedirect.com, https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/xanthone
  11. Alkaloids, sciencedirect.com, https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/food-science/alkaloid
  12. Wacker M, Holick MF. Sunlight and Vitamin D: A global perspective for health. Dermatoendocrinol. 2013;5(1):51-108. doi:10.4161/derm.24494 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3897598/
  13. CK Eternity, The Truth about Vitamin D Metabolism, Mar 12, 2021, Patreon.com, https://www.patreon.com/posts/truth-about-d-48683534
  14. Bright Light Treatment Research. sunbox.com, https://www.sunbox.com/research/bright-light-treatment-research/
  15. Ezvid Wiki, The 6 Best Vitamin D Lights – 2019, Nov 28, 2018, youtube.com, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iqk9hzYC5Mc&feature=youtu.be
  16. Pjrek E, Friedrich M, -E, Cambioli L, Dold M, Jäger F, Komorowski A, Lanzenberger R, Kasper S, Winkler D: The Efficacy of Light Therapy in the Treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Psychother Psychosom 2020;89:17-24. doi: 10.1159/000502891 https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/502891
  17. Spies, M., James, G.M., Vraka, C. et al. Brain monoamine oxidase A in seasonal affective disorder and treatment with bright light therapy. Transl Psychiatry8, 198 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-018-0227-2 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41398-018-0227-2
  18. Elton Alisson, Melatonin produced in the lungs prevents infection by novel coronavirus. Agência FAPESP, Jan 27, 2021 https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2021-01/fda-mpi012721.php
  19. Dmitry Kats, Tweets & images regarding tryptophan, melatonin, and niacin. “Yes, and melatonin is depleting as a result of tryptophan depleting due to inflammation, and only exclusively sufficient niacin supply can flush this inflammation out to then accordingly restore auxiliary biochem and health” “Funny how melatonin is being pushed through publications in relation to #COVID19, whilst they purposefully censor or “ignore” the inflammatory biochemical mechanism that causes this melatonin deficiency & how sufficient niacin supply nips the inflammation in the bud to restore ithttps://twitter.com/NiacinIsHealth/status/1354624867300241408?s=20

Pomegranate Peel/extract may help increase NAD+

Niacin supplementation may help when NAD+ is low during inflammatory conditions, which might include a viral infection or recovery. This topic was introduced in the recent post Kale & Carrots – super good right? maybe not for everyone. NAD+ levels also tend to be reduced with aging and may be a factor in chronic illness associated with aging. Promoting better NAD+ levels may help protect against aging and chronic illness associated with aging. “NAD+ levels decline during ageing, and alterations in NAD+ homeostasis can be found in virtually all age-related diseases, including neurodegeneration, diabetes and cancer. ” (3)

Providing niacin (6) and niacinamide would be helpful to promote more NAD+ as niacin can be made into the chemical. Preventing breakdown is another way to promote more NAD+. (3) EGCG was mentioned within the reference list of the Kale & Carrots post in some excerpts. EGCG may be able to promote more NAD+ within cells, and a few other flavonoid phytonutrients that may help reduce breakdown of NAD+ by inhibiting the enzymes involved in its metabolism. (7)

  • EGCG: “NMNATs are also attractive targets for raising NAD+ in cells because they have dual substrate specificity for NMN and nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN), and they contribute to both de novo and salvage pathways (Zhou et al., 2002). The green tea compound epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG] has been reported to activate NMNAT2 by more than 100% and NMNAT3 by 42% at 50 mM, although this needs to be confirmed, as no data were presented in the paper (Berger et al., 2005).” (7)

Pomegranate peel/extract is also a source of EGCG. Pomegranate preparation tips and more information about health benefits is able on page effectivecare.info/G13. Pomegranate. It may have anti-inflammatory activity through down regulation of Fox03a (4) which is a protein that can increase oxidative stress damage in mitochondria (5) where the NAD+ chemical reactions are taking place.

  • Other phytonutrients may also be helpful to promote NAD+ by decreasing breakdown of it: “An alternative approach to raising NAD+ is to inhibit its degradation either by inhibiting PARPs or NADases, also known as glycohydrolases. The major NADase in mammals, CD38, is inhibited in vitro at low micromolar concentrations by flavonoids including luteolinidin, kuromanin, luteolin, quercetin, and apigenin (IC50 < 10 mM) .” (7)

Luteolinidin is an plant extract (a deoxyanthocyanidin) that is still in research phases for use as a CD38 inhibitor. (1) Kuromanin is also a plant extract, an anthocyanin, available for sale (expensive), under investigation as a CD38 inhibitor (preventing breakdown of NAD+) and neuro protectant. (2)

  • Luteolin is a flavonoid “found in celery, thyme, green peppers, and chamomile tea,” (18) and “chrysanthemum flowers, sweet bell [green/red/orange] peppers, carrots, onion leaves, broccoli, and parsley [78]. (21)
  • Quercetin – is in onions, garlic, green leafy veg, citrus peel, figs, and is a focus of several recent posts: Citrus Fig jam: (14), Hesperidin & quercetin content in citrus peel: (15), Decongestant properties of hesperidin/citrus peel: (16).
  • Apigenin is a flavonoid found in “grapefruit, plant-derived beverages and vegetables such as parsley, onions, oranges, tea, chamomile, wheat sprouts and in some seasonings.” (19) (Intake of more dietary flavonoids on average was associated with a reduced cancer risk. (19))
  • For references (14, 15,16, 18, 19, 21) see post: Phytonutrients that may help against SARS-CoV-2.

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Reference List

  1. Luteolinidin chloride, medchemexpress.com, https://www.medchemexpress.com/luteolinidin-chloride.html
  2. Kuromanin chloride, goldbio.com, https://www.goldbio.com/product/4730/kuromani-chloride
  3. Katsyuba, E., Romani, M., Hofer, D. et al. NAD+ homeostasis in health and disease. Nat Metab 2, 9–31 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-019-0161-5 https://www.nature.com/articles/s42255-019-0161-5?proof=t
  4. Liu S, Zhang X, Sun M, Xu T and Wang A: FoxO3a plays a key role in the protective effects of pomegranate peel extract against amikacin-induced ototoxicity. Int J Mol Med 40: 175-181, 2017 https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/ijmm.2017.3003
  5. Tseng AH, Shieh SS, Wang DL. SIRT3 deacetylates FOXO3 to protect mitochondria against oxidative damage. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013 Oct;63:222-34. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.05.002. Epub 2013 May 7. PMID: 23665396. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23665396/
  6. Pirinen E, Auranen M, Khan NA, Brilhante V, Urho N, Pessia A, Hakkarainen A, Kuula J, Heinonen U, Schmidt MS, Haimilahti K, Piirilä P, Lundbom N, Taskinen MR, Brenner C, Velagapudi V, Pietiläinen KH, Suomalainen A. Niacin Cures Systemic NAD+ Deficiency and Improves Muscle Performance in Adult-Onset Mitochondrial Myopathy. Cell Metab. 2020 Jun 2;31(6):1078-1090.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.04.008. Epub 2020 May 7. Erratum in: Cell Metab. 2020 Jul 7;32(1):144. PMID: 32386566. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32386566/