Pomegranate Peel/extract may help increase NAD+

Niacin supplementation may help when NAD+ is low during inflammatory conditions, which might include a viral infection or recovery. This topic was introduced in the recent post Kale & Carrots – super good right? maybe not for everyone. NAD+ levels also tend to be reduced with aging and may be a factor in chronic illness associated with aging. Promoting better NAD+ levels may help protect against aging and chronic illness associated with aging. “NAD+ levels decline during ageing, and alterations in NAD+ homeostasis can be found in virtually all age-related diseases, including neurodegeneration, diabetes and cancer. ” (3)

Providing niacin (6) and niacinamide would be helpful to promote more NAD+ as niacin can be made into the chemical. Preventing breakdown is another way to promote more NAD+. (3) EGCG was mentioned within the reference list of the Kale & Carrots post in some excerpts. EGCG may be able to promote more NAD+ within cells, and a few other flavonoid phytonutrients that may help reduce breakdown of NAD+ by inhibiting the enzymes involved in its metabolism. (7)

  • EGCG: “NMNATs are also attractive targets for raising NAD+ in cells because they have dual substrate specificity for NMN and nicotinic acid mononucleotide (NaMN), and they contribute to both de novo and salvage pathways (Zhou et al., 2002). The green tea compound epigallocatechin gallate [EGCG] has been reported to activate NMNAT2 by more than 100% and NMNAT3 by 42% at 50 mM, although this needs to be confirmed, as no data were presented in the paper (Berger et al., 2005).” (7)

Pomegranate peel/extract is also a source of EGCG. Pomegranate preparation tips and more information about health benefits is able on page effectivecare.info/G13. Pomegranate. It may have anti-inflammatory activity through down regulation of Fox03a (4) which is a protein that can increase oxidative stress damage in mitochondria (5) where the NAD+ chemical reactions are taking place.

  • Other phytonutrients may also be helpful to promote NAD+ by decreasing breakdown of it: “An alternative approach to raising NAD+ is to inhibit its degradation either by inhibiting PARPs or NADases, also known as glycohydrolases. The major NADase in mammals, CD38, is inhibited in vitro at low micromolar concentrations by flavonoids including luteolinidin, kuromanin, luteolin, quercetin, and apigenin (IC50 < 10 mM) .” (7)

Luteolinidin is an plant extract (a deoxyanthocyanidin) that is still in research phases for use as a CD38 inhibitor. (1) Kuromanin is also a plant extract, an anthocyanin, available for sale (expensive), under investigation as a CD38 inhibitor (preventing breakdown of NAD+) and neuro protectant. (2)

  • Luteolin is a flavonoid “found in celery, thyme, green peppers, and chamomile tea,” (18) and “chrysanthemum flowers, sweet bell [green/red/orange] peppers, carrots, onion leaves, broccoli, and parsley [78]. (21)
  • Quercetin – is in onions, garlic, green leafy veg, citrus peel, figs, and is a focus of several recent posts: Citrus Fig jam: (14), Hesperidin & quercetin content in citrus peel: (15), Decongestant properties of hesperidin/citrus peel: (16).
  • Apigenin is a flavonoid found in “grapefruit, plant-derived beverages and vegetables such as parsley, onions, oranges, tea, chamomile, wheat sprouts and in some seasonings.” (19) (Intake of more dietary flavonoids on average was associated with a reduced cancer risk. (19))
  • For references (14, 15,16, 18, 19, 21) see post: Phytonutrients that may help against SARS-CoV-2.

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Reference List

  1. Luteolinidin chloride, medchemexpress.com, https://www.medchemexpress.com/luteolinidin-chloride.html
  2. Kuromanin chloride, goldbio.com, https://www.goldbio.com/product/4730/kuromani-chloride
  3. Katsyuba, E., Romani, M., Hofer, D. et al. NAD+ homeostasis in health and disease. Nat Metab 2, 9–31 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1038/s42255-019-0161-5 https://www.nature.com/articles/s42255-019-0161-5?proof=t
  4. Liu S, Zhang X, Sun M, Xu T and Wang A: FoxO3a plays a key role in the protective effects of pomegranate peel extract against amikacin-induced ototoxicity. Int J Mol Med 40: 175-181, 2017 https://www.spandidos-publications.com/10.3892/ijmm.2017.3003
  5. Tseng AH, Shieh SS, Wang DL. SIRT3 deacetylates FOXO3 to protect mitochondria against oxidative damage. Free Radic Biol Med. 2013 Oct;63:222-34. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2013.05.002. Epub 2013 May 7. PMID: 23665396. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23665396/
  6. Pirinen E, Auranen M, Khan NA, Brilhante V, Urho N, Pessia A, Hakkarainen A, Kuula J, Heinonen U, Schmidt MS, Haimilahti K, Piirilä P, Lundbom N, Taskinen MR, Brenner C, Velagapudi V, Pietiläinen KH, Suomalainen A. Niacin Cures Systemic NAD+ Deficiency and Improves Muscle Performance in Adult-Onset Mitochondrial Myopathy. Cell Metab. 2020 Jun 2;31(6):1078-1090.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.04.008. Epub 2020 May 7. Erratum in: Cell Metab. 2020 Jul 7;32(1):144. PMID: 32386566. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32386566/