P38 MAPK can be activated by insulin. (1) Insulin is also a growth factor; it is not just a hormone involved with sugar metabolism. Blocking Cannabinoid Receptor type 1 was found to inhibit the activation of P38 MAPK by insulin or insulin-like growth factor. (2) Malfunction of insulin’s growth factor function may be involved in Alzheimer’s Disease (3) as almost 200 pharmaceuticals designed to decrease levels of amyloid or tau protein have not been found effective for treatment of the disease in humans. (See previous post.) Mouse models may not be representative of the disease process in humans.
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- Jvotshna Kanungo, DNA-PK and P38 MAPK: A Kinase Collusion in Alzheimer’s Disease?, Brain Disord Ther. 2017; 6(2): 232. Published online 2017 May 1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5504707/ (1)
- Bouaboula M, Perrachon S, Milligan L, Canat X, Rinaldi-Carmona M, Portier M, Barth F, Calandra B, Pecceu F, Lupker J, Maffrand JP, Le Fur G, Casellas P. A selective inverse agonist for central cannabinoid receptor inhibits mitogen-activated protein kinase activation stimulated by insulin or insulin-like growth factor 1. Evidence for a new model of receptor/ligand interactions. J Biol Chem. 1997 Aug 29;272(35):22330-9. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9268384 (2)
- What is the cause of Alzheimer’s? Scientists think insulin could hold the answer | Opinion, June 6, 2018, newsweek.com, http://www.newsweek.com/what-cause-alzheimers-scientists-think-insulin-could-hold-answer-960752 (3)