Ways pomegranate protects against spike.

Includes chimeric spike gene sequences involved in fusion entry of cells, and Ehden Biber’s latest post with FOIA information from Pfizer including the Omicron BA.1 (“Riltozinameran”) genetic sequence.

Hard to understand info for non-geneticists from Ehden – thanks for sharing maybe some geneticists will translate for us: The Sequence; We now have Pfizer’s Omicron BA.1 (“Riltozinameran”) genetic sequence, alongside other important information, thanks to a FOI request to the UK’s regulatory body, the MHRA. – by Ehden Biber – Sense of Awareness (substack.com)

I had just added a gene sequence image to something I had written, and was searching posts and not finding it (and getting frustrated ;-) when I remembered where it was – Gp41 in SARS-CoV-2 spike, so here we are back with the delicious and royal fruit.

Pomegranate is so awesome it can take on a multi-fanged genetic chimera:

1) Blocks entry at the ACE2 receptors and preserves ACE2 function.

Pomegranate peel extract blocks entry at the ACE2 receptor which also helps protect the function of ACE2 receptors, and pomegranate extract also inhibited “the activity of the virus 3CL protease.” (Tito, et al, 2020) Lung edema and other symptoms of severe Covid19 are also symptoms of lack of ACE2 function. As the infection spreads to cells with ACE2, the spike blocked receptor is dysfunctional. The juice/fruit likely helps but the peel is more potent, more concentrated in phytonutrients and has additional hydrolyzable tannins.

2) Inhibits NET formation, and inflammasome creation.

Inhibits NET formation (Kirchner, et al, 2013) which would promote inflammasome production – which kills good cells when it is an over-reaction. The SARS-CoV-2 virus spike protein, the E protein section, causes activation of NLRP3 Inflammasome creation, and the resulting increase in inflammation can also signal further creation of them. (Wong and Saier, 2021) An allergy like sensitization seems to occur. Macrophages from people who had been sick with COVID-19 reacted to exposure to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and inflammasome production occurred. Cells from people who had not been pre-exposed to SARS-CoV-2 did not react to cause inflammasome creation. (Theobald, et al, 2021)

3) Inhibits fusion of HIV-1 and entry into cells by membrane fusion. It may do the same for SARS-CoV-2.

*I am not sure if “HIV-1 entry inhibitor” is the same as fusion inhibitor for preventing the splitting of S1 from the S2 portion of spike. (Neurath, et al, 2004)

  • Punica granatum (Pomegranate) juice provides an HIV-1 entry inhibitor and candidate topical microbicide.” (Neurath, et al, 2004)

If it is, pomegranate phytonutrients could inhibit the fusion cleavage site from opening and freeing the S1 subunit which then can block nAChR function and has prion like domains and a galectin-3 like sequence. So, preventing S1 release would protect cholinergic function, reduce misfolded protein risks, and reduce risk of galectin-3 over-stimulating excess angiogenesis (blood vessel formation or doubling/splitting).

It was noted by (Wu Zhang and Leng Yap, 2004) that HIV-1 gp41 and SARS-CoV(1) S2 proteins are similar in structure. The gp41 protein helps HIV-1 fuse directly with cells in order to infect them, (Chen, 2019), which SARS-CoV-2 can also do. The S2 portion of spike forms a wedge like shape and directly invades a cell’s bilipid membrane layer for the purpose of membrane-to-membrane fusion with the viral particle. The sequence “GB1” is discussed and a Spike SARS-CoV-2 Fusion peptide, see Fig. S1. (Koppisetti, Fulcher, Van Doren, 2021) If pomegranate can prevent HIV-1 membrane fusion than maybe it is preventing separation of the S1 from the S2 subunit – more research is needed.

Fig. S1. (Koppisetti, Fulcher, Van Doren, 2021)

Background info by (Wu Zhang and Leng Yap, 2004) on the roles of the two parts of a coronavirus species’ spike protein – S1 (“cellular reception recognition”) and S2 (fusion of the viral and host cell membranes for entry):

“Coronavirus spike protein plays a very important role in virus entry, virus–receptor interaction, variations in host range and tissue tropism. The S proteins of majority of coronaviruses are cleaved into two functional subunits, S1 and S2. Liu et al. [1] indicated that the S protein of SARS-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) also forms S1 and S2 domains. The peripheral S1 portion is responsible for cellular receptor recognition, while the membrane-spanning S2 portion mediates the fusion of viral and cellular membrane, hence S protein determines the specificity of host and virulence of coronavirus [2]. Similarly, there are two non-valently associated subunits in the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein, gp120 and gp41, gp120 directs target-cell recognition and viral tropism through interaction with the cell-surface receptor CD4, while the membrane-spanning gp41 promotes fusion of the viral and cellular membranes so that viral contents are released into the host cell [3].” (Wu Zhang and Leng Yap, 2004)

The chimeric S1 subunit can be free and effect receptors elsewhere in the body or be released in exosomes in exhaled breath or sweat, and body fluids. It has the snake venom toxin-like nAChR cholinergic blocking effect and has a galectin-3 look alike sequence. Preventing S1 separation would reduce harm.

4) Acts as a modulator for inflammation & immune function,, promoting or inhibiting as needed for the situation.

Acts as a modulator and can increase Nitric oxide production if low or reduce Nitric oxide production if it excessive. Modulatory benefits for oxidative stress – pomegranate peel can help increase Nitric oxide by promoting eNOS (Delgado, et al, 2017), (de Nigris, et al, 2007a), (Wang D, et al, 2018), or reduce excess by promoting iNOS. (Kandeil, et al, 2019)

5) Protects against misfolded protein conditions.

Protects against misfolded protein conditions – the delphinidin (Noda, et al, 2002) and other anthocyanidins (Masci, et al, 2016), (Qu, et al, 2015) that give pomegranate its purple red hue, may help stabilize proteins as allosteric modulators and many phytonutrients or nutrients can act on receptors as agonists or reverse agonist (less often). (Silva, et al, 2019)

6) Promotes Nrf2 which helps promote DNA damage repair, glutathione production, and immune function.

Promotes Nrf2 which helps promote glutathione production, immune function, and DNA damage repair and inhibits inflammatory cytokines including IL-6 (Karwasra, et al, 2019) and NFkB. (Rasheed, et al, 2009). Nrf2 and pomegranate peel inhibit mast cell degranulation which would reduce inflammation, cytokines, and histamine. (Parisio, et al, 2020) Antihistamines tend to help in CoV treatment. Nrf2 inhibits mast cell degranulation by promoting SIRT4. (Hu B et al, 2020)

7) Contains potent antioxidants in addition to promoting Nrf2 and our own glutathione production.

Pomegranate peel contains potent antioxidants and diuretics (the tannins/EGCG/catechins) which help with detox – have several servings earlier in the day if ill and drink plenty of water, or once a day as a preventive.

The fruit juice and seeds provide some of the benefits for reducing inflammation and protecting the brain, but the peel contains more of the phytonutrients with potent antiviral and antioxidant function. Antioxidant power so strong, pomegranate peel extract can be used as an anti-corrosive for steel. (Rashid, et al, 2017) Too much is a pro-oxidant, use in moderate amounts. The diuretic effect is a clue when you may be getting too much, or just a good amount if puffiness is a problem.

8) Protects against liver, kidney, and brain damage risks from hyperinflammation.

Protects against liver, kidney, (Middha, et al, 2013) and brain damage risks from (spike) hyperinflammation. (Ahmed, et al, 2014) (Morzelle, et al, 2016) With a healthy microbiome, metabolites urolithin A and B can cross the blood brain barrier and reduce neuroinflammation. (Kujawska, et al, 2019) EGCG helps promote new growth of hippocampal cells. (Itika, et al, 2020) Urolithin A may be helpful against aging, metabolic dysfunction, IBD, and neurodegenerative disorders by promoting mitophagy and removal of defective mitochondria leading to improved health of mitochondria. (Singh, et al, 2022)

Species that help produce urolithin A and B may include Firmicutes, Clostridiales and Ruminococcaceae family and Akkermansia muciniphlia. Having more Bacteroides in ratio to Firmicutes was associated with non-production of urolithin A in response to 8 oz of pomegranate juice. A 500 mg supplement product, MitoPure, led to much greater increases in plasma levels of urolithin than the juice, in a crossover self-controlled clinical study. (Singh, et al, 2022)

Firmicutes are the main butyrate producing species, Ruminococcaceae also produce it, and Akkermansia muciniphlia produce other short-chain fatty acids. They are anaerobes fermenting undigested starches within the colon and the short chain fatty acids help feed the colon cells. (Parada Venegas, et al, 2019) *Probiotics provide species that populate the small intestines. We need to eat adequate resistant starches and zinc to support the anaerobe of the colon.

9) Improves gut health, membrane and cardiovascular health and promotes a beneficial microbiome balance of butyrate producing species.

Improves gut health, (Zhang, et al, 2017) membrane health, and cardiovascular health. (Wang et al, 2018)  (Sadeghipour, et al, 2014) (Salwe, et al, 2015) . (Yang, et al, 2018) (Asgary, et al, 2017). Improved endothelial function in the placenta for a diabetic pregnancy animal model, eNOS -/- knockout mice and wild-type were used. (El-Sayyad, et al, 2019)

  • Tip – think of skin health, gut health and blood vessel/cardiovascular health as all connected – similar tissue, slightly different issues.

Promotes balance between Firmicutes and Bacteroides species, butyrate producing microbial species in the gut. Excess Firmicutes is associated with obesity and excess Bacteroides with Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Pomegranate led to a decrease in Firmicutes in an animal-based study about a gut pathogen. (George, et al, 2019)

  • “These results suggest that consumption of pomegranate polyphenols altered the microbiome, making it more resistant to displacement by infection with Cr, indicating that pomegranate polyphenols may mitigate the pathogenic effects of food‐borne bacterial pathogens.” (George, et al, 2019)

When we protect our gut, we are also protecting our brain, because they are connected via the large vagus nerve. It can act as a superhighway and allow chemicals to enter the brain from the gut or enter the gut from the brain. Parkinson’s Disease seems to involve this connection. Pomegranate peel extract helped a brain inflammation condition by modulation of the species in the gut. (Lu, et al, 2020)

  • “Pomegranate peel extract ameliorates the severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via modulation of gut microbiota.” (Lu XY, et al, 2020)

Promotes the microbiome. Sepsis – did not help in one animal model. Pretreatment for a month with pomegranate may have increased gut microbiome leaving the animals at increased risk of sepsis effects when surgery was performed.  (Tavasoli, et al, 2014)

Pomegranate in a market. Photo by Jonas Renner on Unsplash.

Summary: The juice/fruit provide many of these benefits but not all, the peel is more potent in the anti-viral & other benefits.

  1. Pomegranate peel extract blocks entry at the ACE2 receptors and preserves ACE2 function.
  2. Inhibits NET formation which leads to (killer) inflammasome creation.
  3. Inhibits fusion of HIV-1 and entry into cells by membrane fusion. It may do the same for SARS-CoV-2.
  4. Acts as a modulator for inflammation and immune function, promoting or inhibiting as needed for the situation – restoring balance.
  5. Protects against misfolded protein conditions (prions).
  6. Promotes Nrf2 which helps promote DNA damage repair, glutathione production, and immune function.
  7. Pomegranate contains potent antioxidants in addition to promoting Nrf2 and our own glutathione production.
  8. Protects against liver, kidney, and brain damage risks from hyperinflammation.
  9. Improves gut health, membrane and cardiovascular health; and promotes a beneficial microbiome balance of butyrate producing species.
  10. The juice/fruit provide many of these benefits but not all, the peel is more potent in the anti-viral benefits.

Ellagic acid/EGCG alternatives:

If pomegranate/peel is not available to you, then sumac/Zataar contains similar phytonutrients and so do Goji berries, and red raspberries a smaller amount and maybe black raspberries too: “The seeds of raspberries contained 87.8% of the ellagic acid,” (Daniel, et al, 1989), strawberries had more in the pulp than the seeds. Green tea also contains some of the catechin benefits ~ 3 cups per day provides about 200 mg of EGCG which is a typical amount found in supplements of EGCG. If gut issues are also an issue though, green tea may cause discomfort due to the oxalate content.

We should listen to Geert Vanden Bossche, PhD, DVM:

  • Geert says we need to treat everyone prophylactically to stop breakthrough infections & slow the mutation rate. (substack.com) a post on my SubCtack links to his audio/post.

Early treatment works – we need to prophylactically treat everyone with the basic Z-Stack or preferred equivalent. Preventively taking supplements means you are treating somewhat at the first exposure. Then if signs of a cold occur, increase the vitamin C and anti-viral/iron chelators like quercetin, pomegranate peel product/tea and/or black seed oil.

I also include intranasal rinse or spray, and negative ionizers for air quality control in addition. Stop the exposure in the nose where the body has IgA antibodies that react against any coronavirus. Once the RNA species reach the lung, they have mutated somewhat and are harder for the body to fight.

Negative ionizers are something that should be in public places.

Anyone in power over a facility – please see what you can do to add it. CoV spike is positively charged and will clump and fall from the air. Sweep and mop more often. Part of the risk is the air above big crowds – think of it as a circulating swamp of everyone’s mutation variants, which then all can rapidly mingle and the whole swarm can quantumly it seems, all mutate to a new (worse) variant and make the whole crowd sick. Karl Sirotkin, PhD’s work.

  • Golden Silkworms in Pandora’s Box – by Harvard2TheBigHouse (substack.com)

Pomegranate peel and fruit is an “antidote” for many diabolical features of the patented computer-generated sequence that is causing harm. It happens to be pomegranate season in the Northern Hemisphere. Are we collectively going to start using the fruit and peel for its full benefits? Or continue waiting for a rich person to suggest it? Or wait for Tedros and the WHO to use a little money to research pomegranate peel extract against SARS-CoV-2?

If you want medical doctor/researcher recommendations about the benefits of pomegranate, read this open access peer-reviewed book: Pomegranate, (IntechOpen), 2021. In a chapter on the antimicrobial benefits, Celiksoy and Heard did a phenomenal job creating extensive Tables of research trials showing antimicrobial potential of pomegranate peel extract or whole fruit extract. The Tables include which species were targeted using pomegranate extract of what dose, standardized to 13% ellagic acid, or other extraction method details are listed. (Celiksoy and Heard, 2021) It is just one Chapter in an open access peer-reviewed (long) book: Pomegranate, (IntechOpen), 2021.

Pomegranate and early treatment can work – if you use it.

It can’t work if you don’t use it.

Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Patent law, SARS-CoV-2 has 120 patent protected sections, some dating back to 2002 – SARS-1.

Dr. David Martin shares a legal patent application search of the ‘novel’ SARS-COV-2 viral gene sequence in an interview with Reiner Fuellmich.


Disclaimer -This information is being shared for educational purposes within the guidelines of Fair Use.

Niacin, & early treatment in general for SARS-CoV-2 is sensible, reduces hospitalization and mortality rate.

The longer a viral infection is allowed to progress the more cells are killed or damaged, either by the viral replication, or by the damaged cells contents harming the surrounding tissue . See for more information: Pathophysiological Basis and Rationale for Early Outpatient Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Infection. (1)

*post updated 8/1/2021, & 8/24/2021, & 9/2/2021.

See my recent post for a variety of nutrients or other strategies which may help prevent or provide early treatment for a viral infection: COVID19, summary of nutrients that might help prevent, treat, recover. Or more recent: Spike Protein Risks & Aids – summary list.

The post Niacin may help prevent or treat migraines also includes a graphic by Dmitry Katz, PhD about the cofactors used in the Citric Acid Cycle by mitochondria when they are performing aerobic glycolysis – metabolizing sugar with the use of oxygen. Mitochondrial dysfunction and a shift to anaerobic metabolism of sugar or glutamate, fermentation, is associated with cancer cells and other chronic degenerative disease. The cause may be limited nutrients – the list of cofactors needed is long and includes niacin.

Cofactors needed in the Citric Acid Cycle include niacin:

  • B vitamins: B1 (Thiamin) (3) , B2 (Riboflavin) (4), B3 (Niacin) (810), B5 (Pantothenic acid) (5), B6 (Pyridoxine) (67), B7 (Biotin), B9 (Folate) (9),
  • Minerals (17): Mg++ (Magnesium) (111213), Mn++ (Manganese), K+ (Potassium) (13), Zinc (1415), Iron (16), Copper, Sulfate,
  • Amino acids: Carnitine (derived from lysine), Cysteine,
  • Antioxidants: CoQ10, Glutathione, Alpha-Lipoic Acid (ALA).

Niacin in a large dose may help with treatment of an active COVID19 illness or the symptoms of LongCovid. Specifically the niacin/nicotinic acid form, not niacinamide. The “niacin flush” that occurs is warm – and is removing inflammation along with the increased sensation of warmth on the skin. Feeling a little chilled as the niacin flush continues is also normal, internally the body is cooling somewhat as the inflammation is being removed as heat on the skin.

This article summarizes the value of a variety of B vitamins against viral infections and/or inflammation and goes into more detail about niacin use for prevention or treatment of infections and inflammation: Is Niacin a Missing Piece of the COVID Puzzle?. (2) Niacin helps our body cope with increased inflammation and without niacin the inflammation continues to become more severe. For more detail see: Sufficient niacin supply: the missing puzzle piece to COVID-19, and beyond? by Dmitry Kats, PhD (3); and Be Well: A Potential Role for Vitamin B in COVID-19, a team project including scientists from several nations. (4)

Niacin (nicotinic acid) Protocol against COVID-19,
shared with permission of the author, Dmitry Kats, PhD. *His website: niacincurescovid.com.
*The apples and antihistamines can decrease the flush effect if it seems like too much and should be fine at other times of the day, than taken with or shortly after the niacin dose.

Adequate niacin may also help the body have a stable thyroid hormone level. (5)

Low levels of niacin and a metabolite NAD+ may be involved in mitochondrial myopathy which leads to tiredness and weak muscles. Providing 500-1000 milligrams of niacin per day was found to improve muscle strength, increase NAD+ levels to the level seen in the healthy control group, and liver fat decreased by 50% in the experimental group. (6)

Potential short term symptoms – may include serotonin increase.

People who were previously low in serotonin, a neurotransmitter that affects mood and intestinal health, may experience temporary symptoms from an increase in the messenger chemical. Once the body adjusts to the new level of serotonin the symptoms should no longer occur. Symptoms of a sudden increase, or excess of serotonin may include: Agitation or restlessness, Confusion, Rapid heart rate and high blood pressure, Dilated pupils, Loss of muscle coordination or twitching muscles, Muscle rigidity, Heavy sweating, Diarrhea, Headache, Shivering, Goose bumps. (13) People experiencing Serotonin Syndrome for other reasons would likely have more severe symptoms than the short term change due to the increase in niacin. Tryptophan is an amino acid precursor for serotonin and it is depleted when there is inadequate niacin available to make NAD+.

Addition 8/1/21: St. John’s Wort herbal supplements, 5-HTP, and other medications including SSRI antidepressants may increase risk of serotonin toxicity. The problem usually is seen with SSRI use, and treatment generally is to wean off the amount of whatever is being taken, without a sudden stop in case of adverse reaction to that, and the symptoms should lessen. See: St. John’s Wort Drug Interactions with Antidepressants (17)

During acute infection the risk of serotonin toxicity becoming severe is more of a concern to medical professionals I’ve been in communication with. The gradual increase over time may help when it is being used preventatively. Caution is advised with high dose niacin use. Serotonin inhibitor treatment would be needed if the problem of serotonin excess was severe.

Addition 8/24/2021: The FLCCC protocol for CoV may include SSRI medications and trying the niacin protocol and the I-MASK+ FLCCC protocol in combination may increase risk of the serotonin excess. Sudden increase of the niacin dosing to the 1000 mg amounts may also increase the risk of the adverse symptoms of serotonin excess. Try to remain calm, it is temporary though can be dangerous. Seek medical help and cut back on the niacin or SSRIs but suddenly stopping may also be risky. The FLCCC protocol uses fluvoxamine an SSRI.

Saffron taken as a medicinal herbal supplement (88 mg day per Dr. Grouf) may also help by preventing a serotonin excess which may also be a risk of a severe infection condition. “Saffron will restore breathing, heart rate and clear the lungs, it will also prevent serotonin induced injury to brain, lungs and heart and fix co–d diarrhoea” (@DGrouf)

Saffron extract may inhibit serotonin reuptake in synapses (Sophia Esalatmanesh et al., 2017). Serotonergic mechanisms have been influenced by crocin by showing antagonistic action at the 5-HT2c receptor site (Lopresti et al., 2014).
Saffron: The Age-Old Panacea in a New Light, by Maryam Sarwat · 2020, page 125, Chapter 10: Saffron in Brain Diseases, (Google Books) via (@DGrouf)

Another caution against taking saffron at the same time as curcumin/turmeric, as the phytonutrients have opposing mechanisms of action. https://twitter.com/MirrorManDan/status/1430203127257608192?s=19

Dizziness – niacin, nicotinamide and nicotine in combination, can have an adverse effect.

Dizziness may result from a combination of niacin, nicotinamide, and use of a nicotine patch. Niacin/(rxlist.18) Solution – stop taking the niacinamide.

Niacin is converted into niacinamide during metabolic use of the nutrient, so taking both is not really necessary.

Chemically, niacin is one of the simplest vitamins, having the empirical formula C6H3O2N (Illus. 13-1). Nicotinic acid and nicotinamide correspond to 3-pyridine carboxylic acid and its amide, respectively.” […] “Nicotinic acid is converted to the amide form in the tissues, and Erickson et al. (1991) suggests this occurs in the rumen. [article about supplements for lactating cows > is helpful] Nicotinamide functions as a component of two coenzymes: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP).” […] (16)

Although niacin coenzymes are widely distributed in the body, no true storage occurs. The liver is the site of greatest niacin concentration in the body, but the amount stored is minimal.” […] (16)

Niacin can be made from tryptophan, an amino acid, as long as there is also adequate protein, energy, vitamin B6, riboflavin and necessary hormones available. Iron is also needed. Synthesis may take place in the gut as well as throughout the body. See longer excerpt in the Reference List. (16)

Glyphosate may be reducing average tryptophan levels in our diet, and in our bodies.

Glyphosate residue in our food supply may be reducing our levels of tryptophan and other amino acids (14) and trace minerals such as manganese. (15) Glyphosate is a mineral chelator and antibiotic affecting a chemical pathway that affects tryptophan. That may disrupt bacterial health, and was thought to not risk human health too, however it may affect us due to our need for the amino acids., in addition to other effects that have been less studied then the shikimate pathway mechanism of action.

The herbicide glyphosate inhibits the shikimate pathway of the synthesis of amino acids such as phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan.” (Vivankos et al., 2011) (14)

Potential long term risks – may affect liver health and gout – uric acid; quercetin may help reduce risk of uric acid build up.

People with liver damage or gout may need to avoid taking large doses of niacin long term (more than 2000-6000 mg/day). Taking it along with alcohol use may increase the risk of liver damage and worsen the symptoms of the niacin flush with itching. Long term use of large doses may lead to gout, excess uric acid. (7) Symptoms of gout can occur abruptly even waking up at night with severe joint pain, most frequently occurring in the joint at the base of the large toes. Other joint tissue can also be affected. Pain, swelling and redness in the affected toe or other joints are typical symptoms. (8)

Use of large doses of niacin/nicotinic acid for treatment of patients with symptoms of schizophrenia were studied extensively in the 1950s-70s. Use of nicotinamide was not found to help similarly and the treatment was most immediately beneficial for patients with acute onset of the schizophrenia symptoms. People with chronic schizophrenia took longer to respond to use of niacin and needed larger doses to achieve symptom relief. Regarding risk of toxicity, liver concerns, gout, and increases in blood uric acid were observed but were not too severe of a problem, compared to the adverse side effects seen with standard psychiatric medications, and some patients could use a different form or a smaller dose. “The vitamin has been given to patients suffering from gout whose symptoms were not aggravated and it did not interfere with their specific treatment for gout.” (9)

Uric acid/urate levels in gout can be reduces with use of xanthine oxidase inhibitors (10) which include the phytonutrient quercetin. (11) For more information about quercetin’s other benefits as a zinc ionophore and bioflavonoid see the recent post: COVID19, summary of nutrients that might help prevent, treat, recover.

Quercetin is found in many plant foods in small amounts, and rich in some foods like capers (Alcaparras) and cilantro. It is also found in citrus and pomegranate peel. “The researchers note that pickling promotes conversion of rutin (flavonoid compound also called rutoside in capers) to quercetin, the ingredient that they found to be an efficacious KCNQ channel activator. This makes pickled capers as the richest known “natural” source of quercetin, with a maximum reported concentration of 520 mg/100 g for canned capers, compared to a maximum of 323 mg/100 g quercetin for raw capers.” (12) People with Mast Cell overactivity (seasonal allergy & other symptoms might be present) may need to avoid pickled or other fermented foods as that can worsen mast cell symptoms, for more information see: MCAS/Histamine.

Other nutrients that may help as cofactors recommended by Dimitry Kat’s, Ph.D. include vitamin C, a B complex, vitamin D3, zinc, magnesium, and Black seed oil, quercetin, and N-acetyl cysteine could provide additional antioxidant support.

Dr. Kats’ All Natural Daily Protocol for COVID19 (*may help preventively, during viral or other infections, and during recovery. The nutrients help the body remove inflammation as heat loss, the skin reddening ‘niacin flush’. The nutrients also are used by mitochondria to provide us energy and reduce risk of cancer. Niacin and magnesium help cells engulf damaged cells, pathogens, and chemical debris, or tangled proteins for reuse as nutrients. )

Dr. Kats’ Niatonin Protocol (update 9/2/21)

Melatonin and niacin are recommended in the most recent version of the Kats’ protocol, available in this post: Spike summary spreadsheet; telomerase, Circadian cycle & Nrf2, Aug. 22, 2021. Caution: Melatonin is a hormone normally present and active in very tiny amounts, not a milligram, micrograms, and too much may disrupt sleep cycle. Too much regularly, may suppress our own production of melatonin.

Simply focusing on improving sleep habits and getting full spectrum light during the day can help all of the genes and hormones effected by our circadian cycle. Hundreds of genes are activated or de-activated during the day/night transitions – during normal health. Modern life tends to keep us in the inflammatory day time mode – all of the time. That is really what Metabolic Syndrome is – constant low level inflammation instead of cycling between anti-inflammatory night-time growth and repair mode, and the active get busy and do stuff, inflammatory day-time mode.

Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Reference List

  1. Peter A. McCullough, MD, MPH. et al., Pathophysiological Basis and Rationale for Early Outpatient Treatment of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) Infection. August 06, 2020 American Journal of Medicine, VOL 134, ISSUE 1, P16-22, JANUARY 01, 2021 DOI:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amjmed.2020.07.003 https://www.amjmed.com/article/S0002-9343(20)30673-2/fulltext
  2. Mercol J, Is Niacin a Missing Piece of the COVID Puzzle?, Jan 20, 2021, mercola.com, https://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2021/01/20/what-are-the-benefits-of-niacin.aspx
  3. Kats D, Sufficient niacin supply: the missing puzzle piece to COVID-19, and beyond?, preprint, https://osf.io/uec3r/
  4. Be Well: A Potential Role for Vitamin B in COVID-19, Maturitas, Shakoor H, Feehan J, Mikkelsen K, et al. Be well: A potential role for vitamin B in COVID-19. Maturitas. 2021;144:108-111. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2020.08.007 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7428453/
  5. Shakir KM, Kroll S, Aprill BS, Drake AJ 3rd, Eisold JF. Nicotinic acid decreases serum thyroid hormone levels while maintaining a euthyroid state. Mayo Clin Proc. 1995 Jun;70(6):556-8. doi: 10.4065/70.6.556. PMID: 7776715. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/7776715/
  6. Pirinen E, Auranen M, Khan NA, Brilhante V, Urho N, Pessia A, Hakkarainen A, Kuula J, Heinonen U, Schmidt MS, Haimilahti K, Piirilä P, Lundbom N, Taskinen MR, Brenner C, Velagapudi V, Pietiläinen KH, Suomalainen A. Niacin Cures Systemic NAD+ Deficiency and Improves Muscle Performance in Adult-Onset Mitochondrial Myopathy. Cell Metab. 2020 Jun 2;31(6):1078-1090.e5. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2020.04.008. Epub 2020 May 7. Erratum in: Cell Metab. 2020 Jul 7;32(1):144. PMID: 32386566. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32386566/
  7. Niacin, mayoclinic.org, https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements-niacin/art-20364984
  8. Gout – Symptoms & Causes, mayoclinic.org, https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/gout/symptoms-causes/syc-20372897
  9. Hoffer A, Megavitamin B-3 Therapy for Schizophrenia, Canad. Psychiat. Ass. J. Vol. 16 (1971) https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/070674377101600605
  10. White WB, Gout, Xanthine Oxidase Inhibition, and Cardiovascular Outcomes. Circulation. 2018;138:1127–1129 https://www.ahajournals.org/doi/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.036148
  11. Zhang C, Wang R, Zhang G, Gong D. Mechanistic insights into the inhibition of quercetin on xanthine oxidase. Int J Biol Macromol. 2018 Jun;112:405-412. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.01.190. Epub 2018 Jan 31. PMID: 29410028. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29410028/
  12. Kim Stewart, Discovery: Caper Berry’s Quercetin Activates KCNQ Potassium Channel. July 16, 2020, todayspractitioner.com https://todayspractitioner.com/botanical-medicine/discovery-caper-berrys-quercetin-activates-kcnq-potassium-channel/
  13. Serotonin Syndrome: Symptoms & Causes, mayoclinic.org https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/serotonin-syndrome/symptoms-causes/syc-20354758
  14. Vivancos PD, Driscoll SP, Bulman CA, et al. Perturbations of amino acid metabolism associated with glyphosate-dependent inhibition of shikimic acid metabolism affect cellular redox homeostasis and alter the abundance of proteins involved in photosynthesis and photorespiration. Plant Physiol. 2011;157(1):256-268. doi:10.1104/pp.111.181024 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3165874/
  15. Samsel A, Seneff S. Glyphosate, pathways to modern diseases III: Manganese, neurological diseases, and associated pathologies. Surg Neurol Int. 2015;6:45. Published 2015 Mar 24. doi:10.4103/2152-7806.153876 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4392553/
  16. Niacin, DSM.com, https://www.dsm.com/anh/en_US/products/vitamins/vitamin-nutrition-compendium/companion-animals/niacin.htmlThe amino acid tryptophan is a precursor for the synthesis of niacin in the body. There is considerable evidence that synthesis can occur in the intestine. There is also evidence that synthesis can take place elsewhere within the body. The extent to which the metabolic requirement for niacin can be met from tryptophan will depend first on the amount of tryptophan in the diet and second on the efficiency of conversion of tryptophan to niacin. The pathway of tryptophan conversion to nicotinic acid mononucleotide in the body is shown in Figure 13-1. Protein, energy, vitamin B6 and riboflavin nutritional status as well as hormones, affect one or more steps in the conversion sequence shown in Figure 13-1. Therefore, they can influence the yield of niacin from tryptophan. Iron is required by two enzymes for the conversion of tryptophan to niacin with a deficiency reducing tryptophan utilization.” (16)
  17. St. John’s Wort Drug Interactions with Antidepressants, verywellmind.com, https://www.verywellmind.com/st-johns-wort-drug-interactions-with-antidepressants-1066686
  18. Niacin, RxList.com https://www.rxlist.com/niacin/supplements.htm

Artemisinin, arteannuin-B, sgp130Fc and COVID-19

I’m more of a blogger, or early Christmas present giver, than may be ideal for a book author. I’ve been working on a section of my new book that might be beneficial for SARS-CoV-2 prevention and COVID-19 treatment. It may also help explain what makes some people more susceptible for developing severe COVID-19 illness rather than remaining asymptomatic as others who test positive for the SARS-CoV-2 virus.

The book is in very early stages but is on a platform where you can get an e-copy early (minimum price Free, Leanpub/Tipping The Clock Toward Health) and then be informed of updates with an email subscription. I’m copying the artemisinin section here in case it may be helpful. The theme of the book is not CoV specific so the excerpt is also including it within a larger topic.

The too long;didn’t read – a different extract of wormwood, arteannuin-B, may be a more effective anti-viral and anti-inflammatory, than the artemisinin; while the artemisinin may help with a chronic anemia of inflammation type iron overload problem, which may occur with COVID-19 recovery or when the illness is severe. Artemisinin has also been found useful for autoimmune disease and possibly as a cancer treatment. The bigger CoV specific information is a theory about interleuken-6 (IL-6) and a genetic difference that may explain why some people can be asymptomatic carriers of the virus – their immune system doesn’t overreact to IL-6 – and for those more at risk for over-reacting a protein our body normally makes (sgp130Fc) may be an effective treatment because it would just be needed in the overactive amount (five times the normal level).

Merry Christmas – I never could save a present I bought early.

Autoimmune Disease and other Chronic conditions

What if you are feeling so sick that nothing seems cheerful? There are no guarantees that eating healthier will be a cure-all, however you don’t know without trying and some symptom relief might be possible at least. Giving time a chance to help may also help. It can take seven days for the intestinal lining to start to heal and longer for most other areas of the body. Take care of your brain because most types of brain cells do not get replaced regularly the way that cells throughout the rest of the body are retired and replaced with new cells. The advantage in the foods and phytonutrients that tip the body away from inflammatory pathways and towards the production of antioxidants and increased immune function is modulation – moderation.

Immunomodulators and other types of modulating chemicals can shift the activity slightly towards more active or less active. An overactive immune system can also be dangerous. Modulation can be moderate – just the right amount of activity. The healing foods and phytonutrients may help moderately increase immune activity without over activating it into an autoimmune level of action. And they may moderately inhibit the inflammatory pathways without suppressing them totally as may occur with immunosuppressive drugs. During an infection we need the inflammatory pathways but we do not need an overactive response.

Too many inflammatory chemicals can lead to their attacking our healthy body cells in an immune response called a Cytokine Storm or Sepsis Shock. An autoimmune over-reaction may involve molecular mimicry where a food protein or other substance that is similar to our own body’s chemicals sets off an allergic type of immune response against the body chemical, not just the dietary protein.

Wormwood, Artemisia annua, an anti-malarial herb used in Traditional Chinese Medicine, and source of Artemisinin and arteannuin-B .

Wormwood is a medicinal herb used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). An extract of it is used to treat malaria. Artemisinin, the extract, has also been found to help modulate the immune system, which may be helpful for the treatment of autoimmune disease. Derivatives of artemisinin have also been studied for use as antiviral and anticancer treatments. (52⁸⁷) White blood cells can help identify, kill, and remove infected, damaged, or cancerous cells in a process called autophagy however the response can also become overactive in the case of autoimmune disease or a cytokine storm.

Immunomodulating herbs and drugs can help stimulate an immune response while also inhibiting too large of a response. Artemisinin was found to be helpful for rheumatoid arthritis, which has been shown to be due to a pathogen with an intracellular form, (53⁸⁸), and not helpful for osteoarthritis which is due to overuse or other physical trauma. (54⁸⁹) Artemisinin is a phytonutrient extract of the herb wormwood. It is used as a malaria treatment and in Africa ten grams of the dried herb may be used daily as a prevention against malaria, a mosquito borne parasitic disease affecting blood cells. (55⁹⁰)

The whole herb, wormwood (Artemisia annua), may contain other phytonutrients with stronger anti-viral effects than artemisinin, as whole herb extracts were found more effective against the SARS-CoV-2 virus than artemisinin alone (cell-based study). The World Health Organization (W.H.O.) expressed concern that use of a whole herb extract for non malarial illness in the population might result in an increase in artemisinin-resistant malaria strains. (56⁹¹) That concern may be overlooking the synergistic – additive – effect phytonutrients within a plant may have.

Many plants have phytonutrients that work together beneficially, helping health in different ways that have an additive effect: one may help offset a negative effect of another, or one may help one symptom and another might help a different symptom. Ginger root, for example, has over 400 bioactive phytonutrients.

Artemisinin chemically is a sesquiterpene lactone – an aromatic terpene. Two strains of Artemisia annua were chemically analyzed and found to have slightly different ratios and types of sesquiterpenes and terpenes, (57⁹²) so other aromatic chemicals in the whole herb may also be helping health in various ways. One in particular, arteannuin-B, has been found to work with artemisinin against the malaria parasite in a combination that was more effective than if the artemisinin was used alone. (58⁹³) Switching to a whole herb extract or using the combination of arteannuin-B and artemisinin might reduce the risk of the malaria parasite becoming artemisinin resistant instead of increasing the risk about which the W.H.O. expressed concern. (56⁹⁴)

Bioactive – chemicals with some biological effect within our bodies, it might be beneficial or harmful for a particular person depending on the person’s underlying level of health or genetic differences, or gender, age or other factors.

Artemisinin chemically is attracted to cells with excess iron which infectious microbes need for growth and so do cancer cells. The phytonutrient can stop protein replication within the iron rich cell which stops the replication of the infectious microbe. It also seems to bind with the excess iron which in itself can cause oxidative damage – rust might be a more familiar term for oxidative damage affecting iron. If Rheumatoid arthritis is due to an intracellular pathogen then artemisinin may be helping by stopping the underlying infection. It can help in cancer because cancer cells also tend to have extra iron and it may be helpful for the anemia of chronic inflammation which also involves excess iron in cell storage instead of being used to carry oxygen within red blood cells and may be involved in symptoms of extreme tiredness during later stages or recovery from an infection.

The amazing thing about artemisinin in comparison to other antimalarial medications is a low toxicity risk comparatively. Healthy cells are not targeted. Normal function does not seem to be disrupted although it may have pro-inflammatory effects. Arteannuin-B, on the other hand, has been found to have significant anti-inflammatory effects:

Arteannuin-B inhibits the LPS-activated production of PGE2 four times more than artemisinin or dihydroartemisin, and it has a strong inhibitory effect on the proinflammatory interleukines IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α.”. (Lutgen 2013, 58⁹⁵)

Reducing interleukin-6 levels would likely be helpful for treating COVID-19 illness. It is increased by the SARS-CoV-2 virus and by the infection process naturally. It can help fight infection and has pro and anti-inflammatory types. A protein (sgp130Fc) helps control the pro-inflammatory type but it is normally present in amounts lower than would be needed during later stages of COVID-19 illness (the name of the disease caused by an infection with the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, a new virus in the group of cold and influenza viruses). Providing sgp130Fc as a treatment may help treat the people with the more severe inflammatory reaction. There seems to be a genetic susceptibility regarding the over sensitivity to IL-6 levels which may help explain why some people don’t get very sick and others get severely ill with a SARS-CoV-2 infection. (59⁹⁶)

Recent studies about polymorphism within the IL-6R genes, showed how some IL-6 Receptor variants could be a much better substrate for the shedding protease ADAM17, resulting in a reduced response to inflammation and infectious states, in terms of sIL-6R increase [68]. Those individuals are also protected from many chronic inflammatory diseases [69].” (59⁹⁷)

This theory, if true, could help point out who is more at risk for a severe immune reaction to a SARS-CoV-2 infection – people with chronic inflammatory diseases – it suggests they have the more active immune response by their IL-6 Receptor. Knowing who is more at risk can help identify who needs to be more self-protective and who may benefit from preventive treatment or early treatment for suspected symptoms. And they may be the people who might be helped by providing the protein sgp130Fc that inhibits the pro- inflammatory IL-6 Receptor. There is enough of the inhibiting protein to block the receptor activity during normal health but the level of IL-6 can increase five-fold during an infection – while no extra sgp130Fc is made. The excess IL-6 starts inflammatory activity in surrounding cells creating an increasing inflammatory response. (59⁹⁸)

Panic? Or use the information about our genetic immune responses and infection risks to be more proactive about our own health? or our communities’ health?

We can defend from within by providing our bodies with the extra nutrients that our unique genetic metabolism or infection or disease may require for our cells to cope. Vitamin C and other antioxidants and phytonutrients can also help reduce IL-6 and other inflammatory chemicals.

~~~~ end of book excerpt as it was written

addition: The protein sgp130Fc has also been found helpful to treat an animal model of Rheumatoid arthritis. The treatment used was 2.5 mg/kg which was given intravenously to the animals daily three weeks after the induction of the disease condition. Thy hypothesis that the treatment would also improve vascular health in the animals was not disproved. (60) Vascular health is commonly negatively effected in Rheumatoid arthritis along with the symptoms of swollen and painful joints, typically starting in the fingers and toes and progressing to the feet and ankles.

The protein sgp130Fc may also be helpful for treating ulcerative colitis and Irritable Bowel Syndrome. It is tested in human clinical trials for the two bowel conditions by Ferring Pharmaceuticals and I-MAB Biopharma. The version of the protein being produced and tested by the pharmaceutical companies is being called Olamkicept. (61)

The protein may also affect the risk of Alzheimer’s dementia or other inflammatory brain conditions. The protein does not cross the blood brain barrier but affects throughout the rest of the body may still affect the brain by causing an increase of soluble interleuken-6 Receptors which then can increase brain inflammation. The spg130Fc would need to be delivered into the brain somehow to inhibit the soluble IL-6 R and reduce inflammation. (61)

Maybe it would help reduce the amount of the soluble IL-6 Receptors that would be available to enter the brain if given intravenously within general circulation, I don’t know enough about this topic. It is nice to have some hope though. Previous treatment approaches for Alzheimer’s dementia have focused on reducing amyloid protein and it has not been found very helpful for improving the condition.

Pomegranate polyphenols (ellagic acid) can cross the blood brain barrier after metabolism by intestinal bacteria transforms them into urolithins. (62) Pomegranate peel extract also has been used to help form nanoparticles. Urolithin a is being given orally as a nanoparticle to help reduce oxidative stress during treatment with the cancer drug cisplatin. Mortality rate improved in an animal-based study with the addition of the urolithin a. (63) Maybe a combination of spg130Fc and urolithin could cross the blood brain barrier.

Cautions for use of spg130Fc may be needed if liver disease is present, and use for cancer treatment would be dependent on the specific cancer type. It might help treat some types and worsen other types. (61)

Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of Fair Use. It is not intended to provide individual guidance. Please seek a health care provider for individualized health care guidance.

Reference List