Word of the day – Titillation

Abigail Breslin and Paul Dano in Little Miss Sunshine [lavieboston.com]

Music video day at the park – youtube may rock but it also perturbs. I am not sure how I wandered into children’s dance competitions but it appears to be a very competitive sport. Skilled and with judges that may not have a section on their score card – or more to the point – on their entry form describing and defining parameters about the appropriateness of costume and choreography for a child’s event.

If even very skilled little girls never won a single competition if they chose to enter the stage in red satin and black lace – then probably fewer little girls would be sent onto a stage dressed in tutu bikinis and thigh high stockings.

Emotional growth, step by step

To review economics and the law of supply and demand – “where there is a demand . . . there will always be a supply” – the cost may vary at different times and places. Currently the price is free with open internet access – and I am not against open internet at all – but little girl competitions and manipulation of thumbnails to make it seem like pornography are tactics that titillate enough viewers in the world to run up the both the view count and the comments – insightful and less so, but interested. Pedophilia, boredom, concern for the children, reasons may vary but the underlying truth is – sex does sell, or at least it attracts attention. Good or bad – attention-seeking is a drive also.

Seeking approval outside of yourself, attention-seeking behavior, is also a symptom found on the laundry list of the Adult Children of Alcoholics and Dysfuntional Families group. The hardcover book is only $15 and the yellow workbook is only $10 [adultchildren.org]- I gave copies to several friends and family members. Trying to relive childhood dreams through directing one’s child’s activities in pursuit of  of the lost personal dream can also be a symptom of laundry list living – denying real reasons

If it were a Halloween costume talent show competition and one of the categories was Burlesque theatre review, then it would make more sense to me. A very favorite movie, predating love for the Showtime series, United States of Tara, is the black comedy, “Little Miss Sunshine” that takes a magnifying glass to the underbelly of junior, junior miss talent competitions (grade school beauty shows) and the negatives of traveling with a dead body (Grandpa passed along the way – but it was his time – and the show must go on). Abigail Breslin delivers a Best Supporting Actress winning role in the movie as the dancing dynamo that grandpa had assisted with development of a routine for use in the talent section of a Little Miss Sunshine contest. Some of the men loved the routine while the judges were aghast and the emcee was frantically unsure of how to get the little girl (the actress Abigail) to stop her booty shaking routine.

[Grandpa is still alive in this photo of the family at the ice cream road stop scene from the movie “Little Miss Sunshine” , on imdb.com, Abigail Breslin photo collection.]

Red satin and black lace dressed a different set of girls in the following video from a 2009 world dance competition. They are physically very gifted athletes, performing a tiny sized version of every other music video that has been released. They are training from a young age to do extremely well in an extremely competitive industry – show business – or was that Burlesque theatre – I sometimes forget the terminology commonly in use.

World Dance competition (not sure of details about the event), 2009,  link – while I appreciate the athleticism of the girls dancing in the video, I do not appreciate the underlying message that a little girl dance competition industry supported the development of a routine and costume that could grace any Las Vegas night club stage any night of the week – and deservedly so – they are professionals.  But they are also seven years old and to think about the disciplined effort that they all had to practice to achieve such mastery suggests that they didn’t have many innocent days at the beach.

Mastering a skill has been said to take the equivalent of 10,000 hours of practice (said by psychologist, K. Anders Ericsson, who studied the skill level and practice habits of students at the Berlin Elite Academy of Music, and the research is described by Malcolm Gladwell in his book The Outliers). These little girls didn’t learn the moves the way that I learned the dance moves that replicate horizontal practice hours.  Innocent booty shaking or stylized booty shaking is generally a little less graphic then those talented little seven year old girls managed to imitate, artfully I am sure – they are winners. I am only suggesting that the style that they have mastered the imitation of really doesn’t belong in a child’s dance class – or if it does then – why does it and who got to decide that anyway?

Also red satin and black lace bikini tutus and thigh high stockings don’t belong on any seven to seventeen year old if honesty were truly our policy, not just the best policy.

But who am I to judge anything – I think they are great and it is a standard style of the dance industry – flashy, shiny, and shaken more than stirred.

Artist: Beyonce‘, Song: single ladies (?)    7 year old girls going hard on single ladies, link

Youtube Channel:  HaruHaru765     # Views on 12-9-2011:  4,651,503
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While the dancing above is superb,  I prefer the following youthful display of fun and girl power:

Artist: Beyonce’  Song:  (Girls ) Run the World (Sierra Neudeck) link

Youtube Channel: rdneudeck
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Micky Dolenz, in “Circus Boy”

And for a trip back in time, to a more innocent time – a clip from the Television comedy/music video show, “The Monkees”. Each show had a loose plot structure that tied together early versions of what music videos eventually became. The show was somewhat modeled after the Beatles’ movie “A Hard Day’s Night” (these opinions are actually Tom’s musical trivia opinions). My trivial mind can add that in the following video the Monkees are singing portions of a famous children’s poem “Saturday’s child is fair of face” I remember that Wednesday’s child had far to go and one of the days of the week was full of grace but I will need to google a bit to flesh out details of that memory. (per Wikipedia – Mother Goose Rhyme says “Saturday’s child works hard for a living”. – The Monkees , “1966 to 1968, the musical acting quartet was composed of Americans Micky Dolenz, Michael Nesmith and Peter Tork, and Englishman Davy Jones.,” were young adult stars – now that I think about it – they probably had fun  getting to the beach themselves.

*** Micky Dolenz was an American child TV show star. His role was water boy for the elephants in a traveling circus – that sounds like a fun job but I bet elephants drink a lot of water and there weren’t as many electric pumps attached to faucets – a hand pump and bucket may have been involved. Times they have a changed but thirst continues to happen. (happy early birthday – 3-8-1945)   mickydolenz.com/gallery

***Davy Jones, born in Manchester, England (the other Monkees were American) also was a child star beginning at age 11, brief pause at age 14 to pursue becoming a jockey but went back into acting in a traveling show of the musical “Oliver”. His role was a main supporting role as “the Artful Dodger”, the engaging pick pocket that helps the more gentle orphan, Oliver, learn new life skills (pick pocketing and running very fast).  [ DavyJones.net ] [ http://keepupwithjones.davyjones.net/ ]
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Artist: The Monkees television show clip  Song: Saturday’s Child     link – video has Monkees on unicycles

Youtube Channel: utoobuser101

Micky Dolenz, 2009, at Whatever Works

The Monkees can also be seen playing the song live, 2011 Tour, on Youtube, but I like the fun day at the beach version. It reminds me of playing with my sisters and big brother. I also remember being highly offended somewhere around the age of  4 or 5 when my mother started making me wear a shirt in the summertime – everyday – all day long – and my brother still didn’t have to and he was way, way older than I was. It still doesn’t seem fair, not really but I understand a little better now.

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Wikipedia [link] says that Monday’s child was fair of face and Wednesday’s child is full of woe and Thursday’s child (day of the week that you were actually born on) is the one that had far to go.  – I learned of the poem from the book … ??? will have to look around the house – somewhere I still have it.

Nope – not that book actually but I love some of her other books, “Ballet Shoes” and “Dancing Shoes” (originally published as “Wintle’s Wonders“)  [Amazon reviews of an abridged version].

….. children’s novel by (Mary) Noel Streatfield called Thursday’s Child. [Wikipedia]

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In continuing the virtual hunt I found a book assembled by Suzanne Somers, called “Wednesday’s Children”, a collection of celebrities who have shared stories from their childhood experiences. Amazon link to the book 
Amazon Suzanne Somers author page

Excerpt from the one review posted by “a Customer” [link]:

  • Some parts are incredibly shocking but the fact that these people have emerged to live their lives and be in a continual process of healing, is a triumph of their spirits, and to me the triumph of the ultimate spirit of good in the world, after all. An intense but compelling read, and one every abused child should read.

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 http://www.amazon.com/Thursdays-Child-Sonya-Hartnett/dp/0763622036
– children’s book set in Great Depression – Thursday’s child is digging a tunnel under their shanty – cool.
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http://thursdayschildinc.com/
A public Early Intervention program for children under age three, to assist families with children who have been diagnosed with PDD/autism.  -in New York, Early Intervention Programs (EIP) for areas in Brooklyn, Queens, and Staten Island.
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http://www.thursdayschild.org/
A support site for assisting runaway children, teens,

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I had forgotten “Friday’s Child” by Georgette Heyer, “The Big Name In Regency Romance Writing” [Amazon] – have your dictionary nearby if you haven’t read Georgette Heyer before.

Excerpt from the “Editorial Reviews” section:

  • Friday’s Child is a cut above the rest, which is saying quite a lot since this is Georgette Heyer we’re talking about and all her books happen to be fantastic. Friday’s Child is filled with likable characters that stick with you and witty dialogue that will make you laugh out loud. (Katie Trattner Blog Critics 20080903)

;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;;; ( I ran through all the days of the week and didn’t find it and was going to give up – but I just remembered – The Days – I think it was a family and all the kids were born on different days of the week – eureka! – nope – cleaning the house may be easier after all – the father grew gorgeous dahlias and then had a serious accident and they had to move away to a country estate and take in boarders – not sure but set in England in 1950’s I think.)

******* A major problem in our society is that the definition of “abused child” can become very blurred – are 7 year old circus performers abused or in training for an exciting and fulfilling career in the circus?

***Take note that in the poem, below,  the word “gay” had a different common usage than the more typically used definition today tends to imply. However one might pause and reflect on the joyfulness that that original meaning of the word gay actually implies. It is joyful to embrace ones inner nature and proudly live life following nature’s instinctual messages. Who are any of us to judge anyone’s choices in life but our own.

from Wikipedia page:

Common modern versions include:

Monday’s child is fair of face
Tuesday’s child is full of grace,
Wednesday’s child is full of woe,
Thursday’s child has far to go,
Friday’s child is loving and giving,
Saturday’s child works hard for a living,
But the child who is born on the Sabbath Day
Is bonny and blithe and good and gay.[1]
~~~~end of my original post, I removed the images which were not mine.
The point of that post which may have been unclear in the rambling style I was using was simply for parents of young actors and dancers to be cautious about leaving their children alone with talent scouts or other adult trainers who might manipulate the child into doing things which the child can’t possibly understand or might understand but who might think pleasing the adult in order to win a competition or a role is more important to their parents than protecting themselves.

Communicating from a place of equality is important for a healthy relationship in my opinion, and in other health professionals too. Training materials about communicating from equal perspectives have been developed for use with domestic violence and batterers but the handouts might be helpful for anyone who feels they may be in a business or personal relationship where communicating seems to not go as expected. Power struggles can be part of many types of relationships not just within families.

Training materials about equality within a conversation or within a relationship, the Power and Control and Equality Wheels, were developed for helping victims of domestic violence and batterers learn how to recognize problem behaviors within their communication and actions. Family therapists may work with the whole family to practice new ways to communicate because if one person tries to change on their own the others may feel the new style of communication is an attack rather than an attempt by the previously unassertive person to try to communicate their needs.

The handouts may be helpful for most age groups as emotional manipulation or abuse of power and control can occur in many types of relationships not just between couples. Discussing the difference between equal exchanges in a conversation and unequal ones in a calm neutral setting may be helpful to prevent a difficult exchange from ever happening in the first place.

  • Power and Control and Equality Wheels:  The Power and Control Wheel (I.21) was developed by the Domestic Abuse Intervention Programs (DAIP). (I.22) Manipulative behaviors are grouped into eight categories in the model. An additional Equality Wheel (I.23) was developed to help guide batterers and victims of emotional or physical abuse towards healthier ways to interact. It is grouped into eight equivalent categories with examples of healthier ways to interact with each other. Problems frequently can involve communication issues by both people in a relationship.

Crisis Hotlines and Resources:

  • U.S. National Suicide Prevention Hotline: Call 1-800-273-8255, Available 24 hours everyday. (I.16.suicidepreventionlifeline.org)
  • National Helpline: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration: “SAMHSA’s National Helpline, 1-800-662-HELP (4357), (also known as the Treatment Referral Routing Service), is a free, confidential, 24/7, 365-day-a-year treatment referral and information service (in English and Spanish) for individuals and families facing mental and/or substance use disorders.”  (I.17.samhsa.org)
  • Rape, Abuse and Incest National Network, RAINN Hotline: 1-800-656-HOPE, (I.18.RAINN.org)
  • National Domestic Violence Hotline: 24/7 confidential support at 1−800−799−7233 or TTY 1−800−787−3224. (I.19.thehotline.org)
  • Child Welfare Information Gateway: a variety of toll-free hotline numbers for concerns involving the safety of children. (I.20)

See a healthcare provider for medical advice, diagnosis or treatment.

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Regarding: Couple Accused Of Starving Infant Daughter

What is excessive force? excessive removal of a child from its parents? Starvation if even well intentioned “to reduce risk of high cholesterol and needing a bypass surgery” is neglecting to meet the hunger signals and body language shown by crying and fussing in a typical infant. If an infant is too malnourished however they will be listless and not fuss much at all. A loving parent might think things are okay because the baby is quiet. This blog discusses types of failure to thrive – reasons for no weight gain – my main question unanswered from the newspaper article is what happened with the infant’s head circumference and height/age and length/weight curves.

Couple Accused of Starving Baby,” the Assoc. Press,  New York Daily News (11-17-11) [articles.nydailynews.com]

I recently wrote about occasionally having written nutrition assessment letters in support of a few “dinky” WIC children and their parents who were regularly offering a healthy variety of food.  In the article I suggested that the common problem with that segment of my caseload was undiagnosed congenital hypothyroidism. Now I knew the children and parents that I wrote about and I had worked with them monthly or quarterly and measured their dinky, adorable, thriving in their own tiny way, children.

The other common thing amongst the little tykes was their growth chart patterns. There are three types of growth charts to be aware of regarding young children:

1. The head circumference isn’t discussed much but it will be the last curve “to fall off the chart” due to failure to thrive. An infant’s head is bigger than the passage already, so nature designed it to catch up and grow a little more rapidly outside of mom the first two years of life and then hatsize changes very little into adulthood. The neborn head circumference average is roughly 12-14 inches, by 3-6 months it may be 16-18 inches around, by one to two years old 20-22 inches. adult’s may be 24 inches around. I didn’t use a tape measure but mine is roughly 23 inches (level ribbon or tape measure held about one inch above the ears at the wide spot of the forehead/back of head – biggest loop that you can slide up and down with stiff tape measure but heald a little taut, really loose adds a quarter to half inch.)

To get back to malnourishment – the body always sacrifices itself for the brain, and the heart and lungs are second most important (or just as maybe that’s a type of trinity of life). A child that is “failing to thrive” or not growing normally may be doing so for physical malfunction reasons – plenty of food is being offered and/or even going in but the child is still not growing (and may be throwing up all over the laundry). Organic failure to thrive is due to physical  problems with the stomach and reflux, or underlying genetic malfunction effecting metabolic pathways, or unidentified disease, or nutrient deficiency, or other reasons – known and unknown. Recording daily food being offered , amounts consumed and symptoms that occur and then tallying up all the intake nutrient values to see if it “should” be meeting average needs is a tool that I used when investigating non-growing / non-thriving children.

One of the children that probably would have died without my intervention needed communication assistance for organic failure to thrive due to malformed stomach and constant regurgitation. The parents were somewhat learning disabled, not necessarily by a definition but it can make it easy to make the wrong assumptions. I bought a dry erase board for them to make it easier to immediately record how big a bottle was made and how much was eaten – what was offered and what was consumed and then the info was copied later onto paper for me – the infant ended up needing surgery. Turned out that lots was going in and there was tons of dirty laundry but the couple wasn’t able to communicate that to the doctor.

That little boy did weigh his birth weight at two months but he looked starving. His head circumference was practically following a normal curve and his height was only beginning to drop off the chart – really long and skinny with a big head and sunken eyes. He looked very starving and the parents were working very, very hard to care for him for those two months of tons of laundry (the poor may smell bad because food stamps doesn’t pay for laundry soap or laundromats or gasoline to get there – did you want to give that baby a few bottles, burp the spitting up, screaming in stomach pain little tyke, Michele dear, the couple probably did occasionally hire a babysitter or swap labor (you watch my kid today and I’ll watch yours tomorrow.)

2. Back to growth charts- the height growth chart was mentioned above. It will be affected second, head circumference is most protected and weight can slip fairly quickly off the typical pattern.

The growth rate can be slowed down by malnourishment due to lack of food being provided, or lack of absorption of nutrients, or physical regurgitation/spitting up or projectile vomiting or the food, or too much fuel being burned up (common with a minor undiagnosed heart defect – saw one of those also , it took his parents a long time to get appropriate dx as well. Worms and early cancer also might increase calorie needs),

3. Weight gain rate growth is really only valuable if it is compared to the child’s height and to the own child’s previous growth rate. The dinky children that were relatively healthy and growing at an tiny barely plottable growth curve, were still growing and did have their own plottable growth curve (similar to each other BTW). They followed the normal curve but just weren’t on it. they chugged along in a few cases a half inch off the chart which would practically be 25% below “fifth” percentile.

To briefly review Bell curve and normal distribution (fromTarot blog recently) we expect f percent of children to look healthy and normal “oof the chart:” in either direction. Children of Asian descent are not common in Marquette but they always saw the dietitian because they never plotted on the growth chart for weight/height – narrow shoulders, narrow hips, narrow mom and dad. They all matched each other and were offering healthy food every two to three hours – no problems there except with the growth chart assumptions (that fifty percentile is a goal – no it is only a goal for fifty percent of children the other fifty percent would look too fat or too skinny at that weight for height).

4. I think I just started the weight for height growth chart so I thought I better put the number up.

Inorganic failure to thrive is due to parental/caregiver or stress/depression relationship type issues. Occasionally the baby really has no appetite and the parents are offering and offering and the infant isn’t accepting anything – starving itself – that is pretty rare and would take the careful recording of just exactly what is being offered versus what is being consumed (and the estimated amount that was kept down / not spit up). A family that is paranoid about cholesterol and excess weight gain may be offering too little and if stressful feeding interactions are also used the baby may give up rather than continue to fuss for food (too starved of an infant will get listless, apathetic, look a little depressed).

A dinky healthy child will have a bit of cush/moistness to the skin with a little bit of rounding over the muscles and bones, and a healthy glow of youth (moistness factor). A skinny child will be gangly with boniness and ribs showing but not up at the nipple / chest-bone area and dry skin and thin, wispy hair, possibly even falling out easily. A starving model will have chest-bone rib exposure while a thin model will have a bit of flesh rounding out the ribs at least a little. (Offer a skinny model a snack and if she says “No thanks, I’m not hungry” then zinc may be needed – too deficient and the appetite disappears – it can get uncomfortable to eat with too shrunken of a stomach; if she says “No thanks,  I’m not hungry right now but maybe later,” then I’m a little less worried about her.)

A too skinny child will have that body builder appearance where you can see the outline of their muscles very clearly through paper-thin skin (lack of subcutaneous fat was referred to in the Associated Press article). The patella or kneebone will be very knobby and sticking out – it is just floating over the front of the leg suspended by ligaments – stringy cords. Moistness within the joints helps prevent arthritis/joint pain problems and reduce accidents over time. Hydration helps many things and Dr. Batmanghelidj helped asthma patients with more water and sea salt – chemical structure of bleached table salt may be less helpful to the body possibly and it doesn’t taste as good to me at least definitely.

A “dinky” hypothyroid child that followed their own special growth curve two standard deviations off the chart on weight and height for age, might actually plot normally weight is compared to height and head circumference was usually on the grid or just a bit below the fifth percentile. Weight and height compared to their age group were the most “abnormal” and if only weight was looked at the rest of the pattern might be missed. The physical appearance included – if you pick up a dinky child you can still support their bottom in the palm of your hand – narrow bone structure with narrow hips. A straving child will be bony and gangly and achingly sore where all that delicate skin isn’t sqooshy enough to prevent bruising with little pressure. (Stuffed teddy bear with too little stuffing left.)

To sum up – I would need to see the child and ideally see the history of measurements for weight, height and head circumference. If it is a dinky child with parents who are concerned about cholesterol then they may feel comfortable with small size. The tests that were all normal would not have caught congenital hypothyroidism that was due to a thyroid gland that used bromide, fluoride or chloride instead of the iodine (malfunction undetected by a TSH – Thyroid Stimulating Hormone test). Goiter is not evident any longer as a sign of iodine deficiency because the thyroid gland has adapted.

Clues that congenital hypothyroidism might be a problem besides having a two and half year old so small that their bottom fits in the palm of your hand (hard to disguise that oddity and there isn’t a growth chart for it):

1. Mom has hypothyroidism or the symptoms of it but no diagnosis (I do not care what her lab tests say unless she has done a 24 urine collection and had it assessed for iodine content.)

2. Mom has had several children and the baby is one of the youngest. (Mom may have started out with iodine stores but is running lower now because there really isn’t that much fortification or use of iodized table salt and really do we sprinkle on that vitamin D with a slat shaker or vitamin C?)

3. Baby was a twin or triplet . . . or was premature or small for gestational age – although a few of the dinkiest kind of started 7 pounds and just never took off with the more typical, rapid growth rate seen from birth to two and a little slower through preschool.

4. A congenital hypothyroid baby may look like an adorable little midget, pixie, elf child. Big eyes and biggish head compared to the dinky body but perfectly proportioned arms and legs to the body. A little person with other types of dwarfism may have the individual’s head and torso similar in size to that of a typical adult but their arms and legs may be proportionally much shorter than average. Hair on a congenital hypothyroid child may be fine, very soft and baby fine and possibly short with spikiness – nature’s little punk rockers.

5. The dinky child will have an appetite and eat quite normally without any odd quirks, but in vvery small bird like portions – matching their tiny body’s need when calculated based on body weight instead of looking at “recommended intakes” – recommended for the fifty children eating on the fiftieth percentile line perhaps.(autistic kids invariably had quirks in diet preferences or strong opinions.)

6. The iodine content of a urine collection for the child is also a useful indicator as to whether there is much iodine in the diet – lots going in will have more coming out – and a challenge loading dose of iodine can be given and the the urine again measured. The iodine deficient body will retain more of the excess loading dose and the urine will have more than in the first batch but no where near the total that was consumed for the day (I took the loading dose of 50 mg broken into AM and PM – with meals the stuff is a little icky on the stomach – patient forums seem to suggest that sea weed  is more comfortable – don’t know – I use Iodoral.) Fluoride, bromide and chloride levels being excreted can also be monitored – high levels of those reflect the exchange having been made by the malfunctioning thyroid hormone of the non iodine (any port in a storm) for the iodine from the massive influx of the loading dose. The metallic taste in the mouth that can occur during iodine supplementation is theorized to be the bromide / fluoride taste. Yellowish stuff has been reported to stain white clothing (ooze from the skin) – that could be the iodine too it is yellowish, I never checked what color bromide or fluoride are typically.

– there are probably a few more clues and reference links but – brief sum up – Need to see and measure the child – iodine content of the child’s urine would be more concrete in a court than “dinky” although the healthy dinky growth chart pattern would be evidence if all four growth charts were used – Ht/Age, Wt/Age, Ht as Length/Wt, and Head Circumference/Age.

Couple Accused of Starving Baby,” the Assoc. Press,  New York Daily News (11-17-11) [articles.nydailynews.com]
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growth chart info from the CDC website, [link]
Excerpt:
Growth Reference Versus Growth Standard

The CDC and WHO growth charts differ in their overall conceptual approach to describing growth. The WHO charts are growth standards that describe how healthy children should grow under optimal environmental and health conditions. The curves were created based on data from selected communities worldwide, which were chosen according to specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Deviation from the WHO growth standard should prompt clinicians to determine whether suboptimal environmental conditions exist, and if so, whether they can be corrected.

Whereas the WHO charts describe growth of healthy children in optimal conditions, the 2000 CDC growth charts are a growth reference, not a standard, and describe how certain children grew in a particular place and time. The CDC charts describe the growth of children in the United States during a span of approximately 30 years (1963–1994).

CDC   (***the charts that I used)

The CDC growth curves for children aged Table 1). The curves were anchored at birth using national birth weight data obtained from U.S. birth certificates from 1968–1980 and 1985–1994 and birth length data from Wisconsin and Missouri birth certificates (the only states with these data available on birth certificates) from 1989–1994 (5). Birth data were based on 82 million birth weight measurements and 445,000 birth length measurements.

…..
Breastfeeding and Growth Patterns  (***The whole section because it is so important)

When the WHO growth curves were created, the difference in growth between primarily formula-fed infants and primarily breastfed infants was an important consideration (12). The WHO charts were based on the premise that the healthy breastfed infant is the standard against which all other infants should be compared. This is consistent with U.S. dietary reference intakes, in which norms for infant intakes of most nutrients are determined on the basis of the composition of human milk and the average volume of human milk intake (21).

In the WHO charts, 100% of the reference population of infants were breastfed for 12 months and were predominantly breastfed for at least 4 months. In contrast, approximately 50% of the infants in the CDC data set had ever been breastfed, and 33% were still breastfeeding when they reached age 3 months, rates that are lower than those for infant cohorts born today. Data from the CDC National Immunization Survey indicate that in 2007 in the United States, 75% of infants had ever been breastfed, and 58% had been breastfed for at least 3 months (22). In addition, the composition of infant formula has changed considerably during the preceding 35 years (23). Therefore, the current growth of U.S. infants might not be the same as the growth of infants used in the creation of the CDC growth curves.

The expert panel universally agreed that breastfeeding is the optimal form of infant feeding and recognized that the growth of breastfed infants differs from that of formula-fed infants. The panel also recognized that AAP has stated the breastfed infant “is the reference or normative model against which all alternative feeding methods must be measured with regard to growth, health, development, and all other short- and long-term outcomes” (24).

Some U.S. clinicians who are currently using the CDC charts might be unaware of or not understand the growth pattern of exclusively breastfed infants, which differs from that of formula-fed infants. These clinicians might inappropriately recommend that mothers supplement breastfeeding with formula or advise them to wean their infants from breastfeeding completely.

The WHO and CDC charts show different growth patterns that might lead clinicians to different conclusions about variations in growth. Healthy breastfed infants typically gain weight faster than formula-fed infants in the first few months of life but then gain weight more slowly for the remainder of infancy (25,26). Therefore, in the first few months of life, WHO curves show a faster rate of weight gain than the CDC charts for boys and girls (Figures 2 and 3). Use of the WHO charts in the United States might lead to an increase in the misperception of poor growth at this age.

Beginning at approximately age 3 months, WHO curves show a slower rate of weight gain than the CDC charts, both in weight for age and weight for length. Because WHO curves are derived from infants who breastfeed through 12 months, infants who are still breastfeeding at approximately age 3 months are more likely to maintain their percentages on the WHO growth charts but to decrease in percentages on the CDC charts. In contrast, if WHO charts are used to assess the growth of formula-fed infants, these infants might be identified as growing too slowly during the first few months of life but then be identified as gaining weight too quickly after approximately 3 months.

…..
Recommendations
Use of WHO Growth Charts for Children Aged 0-24 Months

Use of the 2006 WHO international growth standard for the assessment of growth among all children aged 0 to24 months, regardless of type of feeding, is recommended. (The charts are available at [cdc.gov/growthcharts].) When using the WHO growth charts, values of 2 standard deviations above and below the median, or the 2.3rd and 97.7th percentiles (labeled as the 2nd and 98th percentiles on the growth charts), are recommended for identification of children whose growth might be indicative of adverse health conditions. The rationale for use of the WHO growth charts for this age group includes the following: 1) the recognition that breastfeeding is the recommended standard for infant feeding and, unlike the CDC charts, the WHO charts reflect growth patterns among children who were predominantly breastfed for at least 4 months and still breastfeeding at age 12 months; 2) clinicians already use growth charts as a standard for normal growth; and 3) the WHO charts are based on a high-quality study, the MGRS.

Continued Use of CDC Growth Charts for Children Aged 24–59 Months

Use of the CDC growth charts for children aged 24–59 months is recommended. The CDC charts also should be used for older children because the charts extend up to age 20 years, whereas the WHO standards described in this report apply only to children aged 0–59 months. The rationale for continuing to use CDC growth charts includes the following: 1) the methods used to create the WHO and CDC charts are similar after age 24 months, 2) the CDC charts can be used continuously through age 19 years, and 3) transitioning at age 24 months is most feasible because measurements switch from recumbent length to standing height at the this age, necessitating use of new printed charts.

……

The estimated prevalence of low weight for age and high weight for length among U.S. children differ depending on whether the CDC charts (using the 5th and 95th percentiles) or the WHO charts (using the 2.3rd and 97.7th percentiles) are used (Figure 6). A substantial difference exists in the prevalence of low weight for age, with the WHO standard showing a lower prevalence beginning at age 6 months. The CDC reference identifies 7%–11% of children aged 6–23 months as having low weight for age, whereas the WHO standard identifies <3%. The WHO standard also identifies fewer infants (aged

……

the end of the article is several more long paragraphs – to sum up – The U.S. clinics have not all started using the newer growth charts and recommendations, improved education in their use is recommended as well as a call for more research into what cut-offs / criteria are indicative of poor growth outcomes (just being on or under the 5 or 95th percentile was never assessed for health in either set of grids. Both sets were simply plotting a bunch of children’s measurements using different types of children.

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Cantaloupe, Listeria, and sea squirts, oh my

Grab your umbrella if you’re on the Pacific coast in a rainstorm, it might be raining Listeria monoctyogenes. Warming trends in the Pacific ocean are due to the change in the cold ocean currents. The deep current that brings cold water down from the Arctic and circulates warmer water north has been getting smaller. With a smaller current flowing, there is less heat exchange and the warmer ocean results in the harsh El Nino’ weather patterns every few years [6]. Listeria is the bacteria that has been in the news from cantaloupe related food poisonings.[16, 17] It can grow at refrigerator temperatures, so older leftovers should be reheated to steaming before eating. Cold lunch meat sandwiches can be a risk, especially to people with weakened immune systems or during pregnancy. The pregnant woman may not feel sick but the baby may be effected. [12 food safety info]Warming of the water in the Pacific ocean due to the change in the deep, cold currants has allowed the bacteria, Listeria, to flourish. While Listeria probably isn’t able to be carried by raindrops and an umbrella might not be necessary to protect yourself from that staying out of rain may become a better idea as our pollutants continue to add up. Toxic chemicals can evaporate and be in “acid rain” or “smog” and have been shown to damage plants and property. After the Japanese nuclear reactor incident this year, it was recommended to avoid skin contact with rain during times when radioactivity levels were detectable in the air.Smog levels, pollen count, and now ocean bacterial count might be needed. Listeria can be in the fish, algae, seaweed and the ocean water itself. Bird droppings from birds that ate the sickened fish may have dropped on a few cantaloupe or it might have gotten in the irrigation system. Listeria was a problem with air conditioning systems during their early introduction. Poorly maintained air conditioners could support the growth of Listeria. it likes a very watery environment that can be cool or warm – versatile bacteria. Dirty air conditioner (or humidifier) could be blowing microscopic droplets containing Listeria bacteria throughout a building. There isn’t a vaccination. The best way to stay healthy is to not have a weakened immune system. One in five people may die from it but they aren’t the younger, stronger, healthier individuals. Pregnant women are at risk for their baby’s sake more than their own risk of a severe case if infected.Why Cantaloupes – why are they the canary in this story?Imagine a nice warm, juicy, fragrant cantaloupe. Smell it in your mind, sweet and floral. Their rinds are so thin you could practically eat it whole. Membranes – weakened membranes, in a fruit so juicy, would leave it at risk to disease. It is a hungry world and so much juicy goodness is begging to be eaten. The orange color is a sign of vitamin A and the nutrient content is similar to sweet potatoes, carrots and other dark orange, red and green fruits and vegetables. Endless variety in nature may run out sooner then we realize, if the building blocks aren’t in the soil and toxins are found there instead.

Mitar Tarabic (1829-1899) predicted that the last great war would be fought with “cannonballs that do not kill, but that cast a spell over the land, the livestock and the people.” (Aftermath, 2010, L.E. Joseph) The cannonballs whizzing around may not be Listeria or radioactivity in rain. We have many chemical pollutants to choose from as our killing cannonballs.

The Food and Drug Administration regulates the safe use of chemicals in foods and products but the standards used have not addressed toxic effects that can be caused overtime at tiny doses. Drugs are evaluated for cancer risks, total toxic load (how much of the drug would kill a mouse for example) and for teratogenicity – whether it causes birth defects or not. What is not addressed is the research on excitoxins – the free amino acids that act as brain neurotransmitters  and messengers throughout the body – and estrogen like chemicals that have been linked to infertility and feminization of animals.

Today’s googling led me from three chemicals found to cause immunotoxicity in sea squirts to marine boat paint and creosote soaked boat dock pilings and lobster cages. Turns out that one of the three, TBTO, was widely used in marine boat poaint in a form that was very unstable. The current paint in less unstable but the TBTO is still allowed for use in the US in ships greater than 25 meters long. Do you think using it on a longer ship makes it safer for the environment or maybe just cheaper for the big boat owners, like say, the Navy, Army, Airforce, and Marines perhaps?

No, I don’t think bigger ships make toxin containing paint any safer than using it on little boats.

Back to sea squirts who live in the sea (with creosote and TBTO and copper sulfate).

I went straight to sea squirts on the long list of animals with research on health effects of chemicals. At the membrane level sea squirts are one of the most basic multi-celled organisms that also have cannabinoid receptors.

The endogenous cannabinoids (eCBs) are not just messenger chemicals but are also membrane building blocks and precursors for other important messengers like the eicosanoids. The eCBs building blocks are actually part of the cellular membrane wall and they can be quickly released in response to changes in calcium or glutamate levels in the cell fluid. Phospholipid and arachidonic acid are released from the membrane and combined into anandamide, an eCB, which might go on to signal changed activity as itself or it might be converted into an eicosanoid with a different message or it might be used to assemble membranes in a different cell (wound healing, baby building, normal breakdown and repair of individual’s cells, or growth of infection/parasitic use). However, if there are constant signals to help, heal, or flee (stress response) then the membranes get more and more “used up”. If the messengers are also the bricks and there are no more bricks coming in on the fertilizer truck the membrane can not be rebuilt. Agribusiness mainly fertilizes with a few nutrients – the basics to achieve growth but with little replacement of trace minerals or compost.

It turns out that compost is important for humic acid and other complex soil compounds that traditional farm dirt has in abundance. Crumbly and black and sweet smelling, farm soil is a good childhood memory. My recent month in a wetland mitigation project reminded me of the difference in soil quality and the impact that has on plants, insects, and small wildlife. The wetland project had five main sections and only one of them had really good dirt and it was the one with the most diverse flowers, insects and even had frogs (seeds were planted in all of them fairly equally but they didn’t all grow the same). There was growth in all of the sections but the creation of “wetland” vs sandy meadow was affected by the soil quality. Fertilizing is not allowed in the regulations – sounds too much like modern medicine – grow a wetland with sand and little water. We’ll see, but I think the buckthorn is winning.

Humic acid is a mixture of complex chemicals and contains amino acids, oils and aromatic chemicals. Another phrase of Mirat Tibarak’s prophecy states “when wildflowers have lost their smell”. Invasive plant control this summer taught me that problem is rampant. Herbs and flowers are fragrant from chemicals called terpenes that are commonly found along with the eCBs. The terpenes also have medicinal properties. Pine oil and lemon oil are examples of aromatic oil compounds.

Our climate may be warmer or colder or both and what exactly is the cause is not as important as recognizing and admitting that change is here. Doing nothing is choosing to do something – more of the same that got us in the mess in the first place.

Creosote is leftover from making oil – it is tarry black goo that is painted or soaked into wood. Railroad ties are the most obvious example. The TBTO made cheap boat paint the protected against bacterial rot of the ship. Copper sulfate is used as an pesticide in Dutch Elm disease (I didn’t look into that one as much). All three caused reduced Natural Killer Cell activity and reduced phagocytosis in sea squirts. – The sea squirts weren’t able to protect themselves from infection or decayed/precancerous cells.

In investigating health I found mass die-offs in birds, bats, fish, insects, tress and sickened cantaloupe. Fish meals in Hawaii ahve also been recalled this summer due to Listeria.

Bento box meal recalled in Hawaii from 7-11 chain stores.

Quantum mechanics might suggest that we can make matter out of energy – something out of nothing – but I think it is more like making something slightly different out of something slightly similar but in a different form.

We can not make strong membranes and vitamin A out of potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus and neither can a cantaloupe. A cantaloupe that is also dealing with soil and ground water that is laced with TBTO, copper sulfate, and creosote might end up with a compromised immune system just like the sea squirt. They had less Natural Killer Cell activity and reduced rates of phagocytosis (ability for white blood cells to engulf and dispose of infected or decaying cells). Both effects have to do with apoptosis and the enzyme blast of death.
Yes, Virginia, we have cannabinoid rich membranes just like sea squirts and cantaloupes and if a bunch of toxins are around then the membranes can’t do their job properly and sickness develops. If the building blocks for the membranes aren’t in the fertilizer, then the plant doesn’t make strong membranes and our food supply for animals and humans doesn’t have as much membrane building blocks. Poor soils cause sickly plant growth and sickly insects and sickly animals and sickly humans.Decomposing plant material makes up the complex humic acid and rich soil that plants need to thrive and that insects, birds, and animals also need for survival. Substances found in rich soil that are not as common in sandy soil are aromatic and oil rich compounds – membrane building blocks.
Umbrellas won’t really help us. The invisible cannonballs are in ground water and eagle shells and human breast milk and our government seems to be voting to further reduce environmental standards daily. Is corporate profit worth sinking our planet in toxins and burning up our resources?
Burning up oil reserves for short term energy and short term profit may be adding to our world’s weak membranes because that huge ground oil reservoir of aromatic and oil rich compounds is being siphoned off and burnt up or turned into plastics. In the ground it was probably adding to the richness of soil by some seepage into the ground water but as plastics or burnt atmospheric waste it is no longer available to strengthen membranes in cantaloupe, sea squirts, or humans.Sweet potatoes and carrots can help build strong membranes and give vitamin A – if cantaloupe is leaving you a little leary. Otherwise heat to steaming and Listeria will be cooked – raw is the risk with lettuce and cantaloupe – we don’t heat them to the steaming point.

See my blogs, Membrane Building Foods and Feed your membranes to spell relief,
for more on eating defensively.

Didn't someone once say that a good fence makes good neighbors?
__________________________________________________________________________
Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of Fair Use. It is not intended to provide individual guidance. Please seek a health care provider for individualized health care guidance.

1.http://www.pesticideinfo.org/List_AquireAll.jsp?Species=1446&Effect=%27Immunological%27

PAN Pesticides Database – Chemical Toxicity Studies on Aquatic Organisms

Sea squirt (Styela plicata) Toxicity Studies – Toxicology studies from the primary scientific literature on aquatic organisms

Copper sulfate (anhydrous)       http://www.pesticideinfo.org/images/book16x16.gifShow Copper sulfate (anhydrous) studies for all species

Creosote       http://www.pesticideinfo.org/images/book16x16.gifShow Creosote studies for all species

Tributyltin oxide       http://www.pesticideinfo.org/images/book16x16.gifShow Tributyltin oxide studies for all species

***Effects for all three poisons include:

immunological Natural killer cell activity
Immunological Phagocytosis

Copper sulfate also had info on:
Immunological Antibody titres

2.http://www.inchem.org/documents/cicads/cicads/cicad14.htm

   This report contains the collective views of an international group of
    experts and does not necessarily represent the decisions or the stated
    policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International
    Labour Organisation, or the World Health Organization.

Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 14: TRIBUTYLTIN OXIDE (TBTO)


8.7.1  Immunotoxicity
      A large number of well-conducted studies have shown that TBTO
    causes depression of immune functions dependent on the thymus. Results
    from a number of short-term studies are listed in Table 1. Subchronic
    and chronic studies (Vos et al., 1990) are summarized in detail below
    and are listed in Table 1. The chronic study conducted by Vos et al.
    (1990) shows effects on thymus-dependent immune responses at a dose lower than that at which any other toxic effects have been observed.
    The Vos et al. (1990) study also establishes that weanling animals are
    more sensitive than adults to the effects of TBTO. For example,
    following subchronic exposure, the LOAEL in weanling rats was 0.25
    mg/kg body weight per day, whereas the LOAEL in aged rats was 2.5
    mg/kg body weight per day. The NOAELs were 0.025 and 0.25 mg/kg body
    weight per day, respectively. Data from Buckiova et al. (1992) and
    Smialowicz et al. (1989) also show that exposure of mice  in utero
    and exposure of rat pups prior to weaning cause effects at exposures
    lower than those required for the same effects in adult animals.
         In a subchronic immunotoxicity study (Vos et al., 1990; a
    companion to the chronic study summarized below), aged (1-year-old)
    male Wistar rats were exposed for 5 months to the same diets used in
    the principal study. Based on the authors’ statement from the chronic
    study (see below), estimated compound intake was 0, 0.025, 0.25, or
    2.5 mg/kg body weight per day. End-points were the same as some of
    those evaluated in the chronic study.
         Compound-related effects occurred only in the high-dose group and
    consisted of significantly decreased thymus weight (39% lower than
    controls,  P < 0.01), impaired resistance to  Trichinella spiralis
    (indicated by increased recovery of adult worms from the small
    intestine [780% higher than controls;  P < 0.01] and number of
    larvae in muscle [80% higher;  P < 0.001]), and impaired resistance
    to  Listeria monocytogenes (indicated by approximately 300% increased
    splenic bacterial count;  P < 0.05).
*** Immunotoxicity is not addressed in approval of use of this chemical – only carcinogenicity and lethal dose information is given – for mice. It may not be a problem for humans since it hasn’t been tested for that. (sarcasm)
*** didn’t read it word for word but this popped out during my skim:
Food consumption was slightly increased in all dose groups in males throughout the study (p value not reported).  ***subtext to me  – chemical that may increase appetite and weight gain possibly. The previous link mentioned depressed thymus – aka increased hypothyroidism
Statistically significant decreases in survival occurred in treated mice of both sexes. In males, survival after 18 months was 67, 52, 42 and 42% in the control and low-, mid-, and high-dose groups, respectively (p < 0.05, all doses). The overall survival of the low-dose males (52%) was within the range of the controls (45-78%). Because the difference in survival between the low- dose and control males became apparent late in the study (beginning at 15 months) and was marked at termination (54% vs. 71% in controls), the decreased survival in the low-dose males is considered treatment-related. Survival in females at 18 months was 59, 48, 40 and 27% in the control and low-, mid- and high-dose groups, respectively (p < 0.05, except for the low-dose group). No information on causes of death was available. Other treatment-related effects included significantly decreased food consumption and increased absolute and relative liver weights in females at the high dose.
*** High does are assoc with poor weight gain and shorter life. Offspring had poor weight gain at higher doses in the mothers.
“Based on decreased thymus weight, the LOAEL for parental toxicity is 2.95 mg/kg-day in males and 3.43 mg/kg-day in females. The NOAEL for parental toxicity is 0.29 mg/kg-day in males and 0.34 mg/kg-day in females.”
“Actual weight gain was 4.5% higher, 1.8% lower, and 26% lower than controls at the low-, mid- and high-dose, respectively. Adjusted weight gain (excluding uterus) was 5.5, 22.2 and 69.4% lower than controls at the low-, mid- and high-dose, respectively.”
*** – yes lower dose mice gain more weight – these were pregnant but it’s a clue. What is more disturbing  is how hard the pregnancy was on the mice at the higher doses – subtracting the uterus left them 69.4% lighter than the controls and the low dose mice actually lost weight compared to controls as well so the average size of the uterus from that group of mice was 10% larger than the  control group’s.
*** Organic chemistry of earth science – increasing acidity of rain and ground water may be triggering a change in soil conditions towards sequestering minerals.
From chapter 14:
Soil humic substances contain higher amino acid concentrations: roughly 500 nM/mg for soil humic acids and 150 nM/mg for soil fulvic acids. Hydrogen bonding appears to play a role in molecular aggregation.
Soil humic substances have core structures that are highly aromatic (20 to 70% of total C) The shape of humic substances is strongly influenced by pH. At low pH, humic and fulvic molecules are fibrous. At neutral pH, these fibers tend to mesh together to form a sponge-like structure. This mesh structure is capable of trapping smaller molecules. For example, fatty acids and acyclic alkalenes, which are found in most humic and fulvic acids, may be simply trapped rather than bonded to the molecular backbone. Under alkaline conditions the structure becomes plate-like. (pg 612) Aquatic humic substances are primarily aliphatic whereas soil humic substances are primarily aromatic. This observation in itself does not exclude derivation of aquatic humic substances from soil (since leaching may preferentially remove aliphatic-rich molecules), but the difference is consistent with soil humic substances being derived primarily from higher plants (which are rich in aromatic molecules such as lignin and tannins), and aquatic humic substances being derived primarily from algae and zooplankton (which are poor in aromatic molecules). (pg 612)
Dependence on pH
Figure 14.31 shows the effect of pH on the adsorption of humic acid on Al2O3: the extent of adsorption is greatest at a pH of about 3 and is generally greater at low pH than at high pH. This pH dependence arises because the availability of hydrogen ions in solution will affect the charge on a solid
surface in contract with that solution. At pH below the isoelectric point of a mineral, mineral surfaces
will be protonated and will carry a positive charge; at higher pHÕs the mineral surface will bear a negative charge. Furthermore, dissociation and protonation of organic functional groups, which will affect the extent of adsorption through the mechanisms discussed above, is pH dependent (pg 624)
THE WORLD OF ORGANOTIN CHEMICALS: APPLICATIONS, SUBSTITUTES, AND THE ENVIRONMENT
John M. Batt, Director – Product Stewardship, Additives Division, ATOFINA Chemicals, Inc.
In the marine antifoulant (MAF) paint market, tributyltin is used as a biocide in
paint formulations. These paints are then used to protect the underwater surface
area of a ship’s hull against barnacles, algae, etc. in order to avoid increased fuel
consumption and premature dry-docking. Triorganotins were introduced for this
application 30 to 40 years ago. Originally, tributyltin oxide (TBTO) was freely
dispersed in what were called Free Association Paints (FAP). These paints had
uncontrolled, rapid leaching rates of the biocide.
Polar oceans key to temperature in the tropics (6-17-10)

7. http://www.ontariogenomics.ca/outreach/episode-8-brood-14-fact-sheet

CAN CROWS BECOME VIOLENT FROM A DIET OF COPPER SULFATE-LACED CICADAS?

***this was a TV show plot explanation – I don’t think cicadas that ate copper sulfate laced nutrients (from Dutch Elm Disease treatment of tree roots) would hatch well  for the crows to be able to eat them, probably and short term craziness in the crow would be less likely then gradual weakening of the immune system and eventual death from infection.

8. http://www.ontariogenomics.ca/

The Ontario Genomics Institute (OGI) is a private, not-for-profit corporation focused on using world-class research to create strategic genomics resources and accelerate Ontario’s development of a globally-competitive life sciences sector.

9. http://www.whygenomics.ca/

“Genomics is our best weapon in the battle against world hunger, disease, and environmental challenges.”
***If we are only focused on one question – how gene manipulation can save the world – then we may miss out on saving the world.

9.1. http://www.ontariogenomics.ca/outreach/episode-8-brood-14-sceince-society

10. http://geochange.er.usgs.gov/sw/changes/natural/elnino/

 “During an El Niño, the trade winds are too weak to cause upwelling of nutrient-rich waters off the coasts of Ecuador and Peru. Generations of South American fisherman thus have recognized these conditions by the disappearance of their standard catch, commonly during December and January, every three to seven years. Because of the near coincidence in timing between these conditions and Christmas, the fishing communities have called the phenomenon “El Niño”, for the Christ child. The geologic record suggests that El Niño conditions have been a part of earth’s climate for at least several thousand years.”

13. http://mauidish.com/breaking-maui-foodie-news/possible-food-listeria-contamination-7-eleven-bentos-recalled/ Possible Food Listeria Contamination 7-Eleven Hawaii Bentos RECALLED, by Jen Russo on July 7, 2011 – 11:12 am

14. http://www.inchem.org/documents/cicads/cicads/cicad62.htm#1.2

Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 62, Coal Tar Creosote

“Aquatic invertebrates and fish bioaccumulate creosote components, as has been demonstrated mainly for PAHs by field monitoring studies at creosote-contaminated sites, relocation experiments, and laboratory or microcosm studies. Generally, PAH profiles in insects and crayfish were close to that found in sediments, whereas fish had greatly altered ratios for low/high-molecular-weight PAHs. Bioconcentration factors (BCFs) in connection with creosote exposure have rarely been reported. However, BCFs for PAH components from creosote-contaminated sediments have been estimated to range from 0.3 to 73 000.”  *** Creosote has many compounds including benzene, fluorene, and fluoranthene

7.5.3 Endocrine disruption

“A coal tar creosote (partial specification: 15 PAHs) has been examined in vitro for estrogen receptor-mediated activity using competitive ligand binding assays and reporter gene assays (Fielden et al., 2000). Creosote was found to bind to the mouse estrogen receptor, bind to the human sex hormone-binding globulin, and elicit partial agonist activity in reporter gene assays in transiently transfected MCF-7 cells (human mammary carcinoma-derived cells). The mouse competitive ligand binding assay (using uterine cytosol from female ICR mice) resulted in an IC50 value (displacement of the labelled ligand from the estrogen receptor) of 135 mg/litre creosote (compared with 7 µg/litre for 17beta-estradiol). Based on these values, it was estimated that creosote has a relative estrogenic potency of 0.000 165 and contains approximately 165 mg/litre of estradiol-equivalents. In the assay with human cells (human pregnancy serum), creosote displaced approximately 50% of the ligand at a concentration of 220 mg/litre; however, an IC50 value could not be determined, because full displacement curves could not be obtained due to the insolubility of creosote at higher concentrations.”

8.2.2.1 Non-cancer effects

Women (281 cases, 216 controls, USA) occupationally exposed to dusts that were primarily wood- and agriculture-related were found to have an increased risk of infertility (OR = 2.87, CI = 1.05–7.88); however, there were no data available to establish an association with the wood preservatives (PCP, creosote, formaldehyde, chromium, or arsenic) commonly used (Smith et al., 1997).

*** That effect may in part be due to the fluorine and fluoanthene and increased thyroid inhibition.

“An increase in susceptibility to infectious disease has been demonstrated in eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica) exposed to 0, 15, and 30% dilutions of the WSF generated from Elizabeth River sediments. The mean total PAH concentration in this sediment was 2.4 g/kg dry weight. The mean concentration of aromatic compounds in the WSF (more than 100 compounds) was 4.08 mg/litre, with naphthalene, acenaphthene, 2-methylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, fluorene, dibenzofuran, 1-methylnaphthalene, and carbazole being the predominant compounds (concentrations ranging from 0.15 to 1.51 mg/litre). Exposure to these fractions for 56 or 68 days enhanced pre-existing infections caused by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus marinus (Dermo) and increased the oysters’ susceptibility to experimentally induced infection in a dose-dependent manner (Chu & Hale, 1994).”

 Bad Food, Good Wrap, The Boston Globe, Stephen reucroft and John Swain (4-25-2000)

CDC says 18 deaths tied to listeria in cantaloupe, AP Online, (10-4-2011) BY Mary Clare Jalonick

“FDA Commissioner Margaret Hamburg said Tuesday that the agency is still investigating the cause of the outbreak. Officials have said they are looking at the farm’s water supply and possible animal intrusions among other things in trying to figure out how the cantaloupes became contaminated. Listeria bacteria grow in moist, muddy conditions and are often carried by animals.”

17. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-268415671.html ADH Reports Case Connected to Multi-State Outbreak of Listeriosis Linked to Whole Cantaloupes from Jensen Farms, Colo.., States News Service  September 29, 2011

18.http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12043163 Zh Mikrobiol Epidemiol Immunobiol. 2002 Mar-Apr;(2):81-3. [Opportunistic bacteria detected in cultivated mussels].[Article in Russian] Beleneva IA, Maslennikova EF.Institute of Marine Biology, Far East Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok, Russia.

“As many as 8 Listeria monocytogenes strains, 12 Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains and 5 Staphylococcus aureus strains were isolated from mussels Mytilus edulis, grown on special installations in the Trinity Bay of the Gulf of Peter the Great, the Sea of Japan. The isolated cultures proved to be highly resistant to a number of antibiotics. Many strains displayed DNAase and haemolytic activity. The cultures of L. monocytogenes, S. aureus and P. aeruginosa also had high lipase, protease and lecithinase activity. The organism of the mussels seems to be a confinement for these bacteria under study. “
Mar Pollut Bull. 2011 Feb;62(2):382-7. Epub 2010 Oct 13., Incidence and characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes from the Japan and South China seas.,  Beleneva IA, .A.V. Zhirmunsky Institute of Marine Biology, Far Eastern Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladivostok 690041, Russia. beleneva.vl@mail.ru

20.  http://news.yahoo.com/scientists-bacteria-spreading-warming-oceans-142213062.html
Scientists: Bacteria spreading in warming oceans By DON MELVIN – Associated Press | AP – Tue, Sep 13, 2011

 21. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-225623023.html Study data from Technical University of Munich update understanding of Listeria.

Biotech Week May 12, 2010  ***study on laying hens, organically fed vs standard feed groups comparing their amount and types of Listeria and Enterococcus infection. Levels of pathogen infections were similar but the amount of antibiotic resistant strains were fewer in the organically fed chickens.

22. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-139036416.html  Orca Bay recalls crab legs: USDC detects Listeria contamination.(United States Department of Commerce )

“The risk of listeriosis can be decreased in ruminants by feeding good quality silage with a low pH. Spoiled or mouldy silage should be avoided, as well as silage from the superficial few inches exposed to air.”
Amazon Link – textbook

24. http://books.google.com/books?id=NZsS6tbSAFYC&pg=PA637&lpg=PA637&dq=listeria+wild+animals&source=vrt&ots=3sGFgl_eS2&sig=TEOjD7TVh-EpR4VmFYpfdJWK6rM&hl=en&ei=Dj6NTvePIYS2tweWhfWJDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=11&sqi=2&ved=0CHsQ6AEwCg#v=onepage&q=listeria%20wild%20animals&f=false
Elliot T. Ryser, Elmer H. Marth, Listeria, Listeriosis and Food Safety, (page 637)

“Listeria spp can be recovered from non-plolluted environments and the source of this bacterium may very well be from avian species, especially seagulls.[99]”

25. http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-144294853.html Winter wellness: answering your body’s need for nurturance: pamper yourself with herbalist Karyn Sweet.(DEPT.> herbal healing)

New Life Journal February 1, 2006 | Sweet, Karyn

Essential oil of oregano, active compound carvacrol.

Oregano means “joy of the mountain” in Greek–let it bring some joy into a cold mountain day. It is a warming herb that can add delicious taste to Italian sauces while soothing the digestive tract and preventing free radical damage. A compound of oregano oil called carvacrol is a powerful antiseptic and so can be used as a gargle to soothe sore throats or mouth inflammations. In aromatherapy, the essential oil is used as a treatment for bacterial and fungal infections. Research has found that it is as effective against bacteria such as listeria, staphylococcus, and E. coli as conventional antibiotics. Use of the diluted essential oil may alleviate toothache, gum infections, athlete’s foot, psoriasis, or eczema. Oregano’s antiseptic properties can be enjoyed by grinding it into soap and its anti-inflammatory properties can be released in homemade salves and oils. Furthermore, oregano’s use as an expectorant makes it particularly useful during these winter months. Add a strong infusion to the bath and relax in the warm water while the winds blow cold outside. ”