Snake venom toxin in the spike protein?

Unusual gene insertions within the SARS-CoV-2 viral gene sequence were found that resemble the protein structure and genetic code of a snake venom toxin. That is the bad news. The good news is that an anti-clotting snake venom anti-toxin medication was found helpful in the treatment of patients with severe COVID19. The anti-clotting medication is Tirofiban/Aggrastat, see image, and Dr. Fauci was emailed about the success of the treatment on April 27, 2020. It would have been nice of Dr. Fauci to let the rest of us know the good news last year.

*7-6-21 – addition – that was sarcasm and sarcasm is no longer adequate – it was Dr. Fauci’s job to let the US public know of effective remedies rather than obstruct investigations and use of early treatment. He and Ralph Baric and their team need to be investigated by an independent (non US corrupt) group and be charged with global homicide – seriously. We can’t just joke about bioweapons or gain of function ‘vaccine’ research that accidentally gets out, gets covered up, and early treatments suppressed for the apparent purpose of pushing emergency approval through for an inadequately tested experimental genetic manipulation treatment.

Image via Dr. Tau Braun, on Facebook.

The other good news is that nicotine is protective, by blocking access to the toxic spike protein to nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors (nAChRs) which both nicotine and the neurotransmitter acetylcholine can activate (agonists of the receptor type, rather than antagonists).

Based on the clinical observation of low prevalence of smoking among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we examined and identified a “toxin-like” amino acid (aa) sequence in the Receptor Binding Domain of the Spike Glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2 (aa 375–390), which is homologous to a sequence of the Neurotoxin homolog NL1, one of the many snake venom toxins that are known to interact with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs).” (1)

Anyone feeling a little tired? – a similar type of nerve toxin from a cone snail: Neurotoxin homolog NL1: “Antagonist [inhibitor] of muscle and neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) with highest affinity for neuronal alpha-7/CHRNA7 nAChRs.” (9)

The Cholinergic System

The Cholinergic System effects health and cognition in many ways: “The cholinergic system is the network of acetylcholine receptors clustered within certain brain regions which the activation of, or inhibition of, in total effects most of our actions. More specifically effecting the cholinergic system might cause symptoms of “dry mouth, tachycardia or bradycardia [rapid or slow heart rate], drowsiness, sedation, and short-term memory loss,”…” Low levels of acetylcholine can cause difficulty forgetting traumatic memories, while higher levels help with the formation of new memories. (The Cholinergic & Dopaminergic Systems: previous post)

Formaldehyde – a neurotoxin that also inhibits acetylcholine receptors.

Formaldehyde has an inhibitory effect on acetylcholine receptors as it leads to increased break down of acetylcholine, so excess amounts of it may worsen symptoms of spike toxicity. Increased formaldehyde levels leads to an increase in levels of the enzyme that breaks down acetylcholine, resulting in less of the neurotransmitter being available for stimulating the acetylcholine receptors of nerve cells. (12)

Formaldehyde is found in smoke toxins whether you are the smoker, or there is fresh secondhand smoke, or a long term lingering thirdhand smoke on the walls & surfaces of everything in the home. Formaldehyde is also breathed in from smog or air pollution, and may off-gas (be released) from vinyl or other environmental sources. More bad news – we also make our own formaldehyde when our stress level is elevated. (References & more info, The Cholinergic & Dopaminergic Systems – also has dietary tips for Parkinson’s Disease: previous post)

Formaldehyde is a chemical used to embalm corpses. No need to make it for ourselves.

Peace – tranquility – focus on the now, not the worries of the future or the regrets of the past. By focusing on the present we can take decisive action steps towards a different future.

Jumping ahead to my own present time – I am using a half a nicotine patch per day (= 10.5 mg), for the last few days and it has helped my health, after a colitis like flair-up that was lingering longer than ever before. To me three weeks of colitis is three weeks too many – however some people suffer from it most days for years. It can end lives prematurely. I lost 30 pounds in three weeks during my initial problem – extreme stress was happening at that time. of the nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors can be involved in Inflammatory Bowel Disease. (2)

Nicotine activates most types of nAChRs.

Nicotine activates most of the subtypes of nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, except for two subtypes, which it inhibits: “Nicotinic receptors are so named because they are activated by the tobacco plant alkaloid nicotine, but curiously, α9 and α9α10 nAChRs are not activated by nicotine and instead are inhibited by this ligand [8,13,25].” (2) Those two types have not been identified within the gastrointestinal tract, although many other subtypes are found there. (Table 1, 2)

Where are they found? It is the standout details that provide clues.

Upon its release, acetylcholine activates a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) composed of α9 and α10 subunits14,15,16,17. In vertebrates the expression of these 2 subunits is limited mainly to the cochlear and vestibular end organs14,15,18,19. ” (3)

>>> “Neurons of the medial olivary complex inhibit cochlear hair cells through the activation of α9α10-containing nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs).” (3)

Vertigo & Tinnitus can result from cochlear hair cell damage.

Vertigo and tinnitus might be related to something affecting the cochlear hair cells. They are very delicate and prone to irreversible damage. Dehydration, certain medications, and lack of magnesium may all be risk factors in addition to very loud noise, particularly if typically on one side more than the other – so one set of cochlear hair cells are damaged and the other is still okay – leaving the person off balance in perception and causing vertigo or tinnitus. The conditions have been reported as symptoms of COVID19 and as adverse reactions following CoV injection.

Magnesium is needed to protect cochlear hair cells.

“... intravenous administration of magnesium sulfate improved hearing recovery…” (4)

Epsom salt soaks provide a topical source of magnesium and sulfate which is absorbed through skin pores, bypassing any potential intestinal malabsorption.

Nicotine activates nAChRs, except for the type found in the inner ears.

Bath time over – back to the subtypes of nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors – toxins can be very specific to subtype. Conus imperialis snails have a toxin that affects only the α7 subtype, making it useful in research of the brain’s cholinergic system. “It has no effect on nAChRs composed of α2/ß2, α3/ß2, α4/ß2, α2/ß4, α3/ß4, or α4/ß4 subunits.” (5)

That doesn’t rule out an effect on the α9 and α10 subunits, does it? Do the snake venom like toxin on the spike protein effect the α9 and α10 subunits? Based on reports of tinnitus and vertigo, it seems likely that they are effected by the spike protein.

Nicotine for better hearing and balance? Odd world today. Though, the nicotine doesn’t activate the α9 and α10 subunits so it might not protect them – bath time is fun according to Ernie from Sesame Street.

What other nutrients might help the inner ear cochlear hair cells?

Antioxidants and polyphenols and other NfKB inhibitor phytonutrients would also help protect the hair cells of the inner ear. Supplements of the antioxidant/metabolite CoQ10 and vitamin E have been found beneficial for tinnitus patients. (4) Nrf2 promoting foods have the double bonus of increasing our own antioxidant production and inhibiting the inflammatory NfKB. See: Nrf2 Promoting Foods for nutrient and foods that might be helpful.

The levels of nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, oxidative stress, nuclear factor kappa-beta (NF-kappa), glutamate receptor (N-methyl-D-aspartate), and calcium are elevated in patients with tinnitus.12,13 About 21% to 42% of tinnitus cases are induced by exposure to noise.14 About 34% of tinnitus patients have post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), suggesting there may be some linkage of neuronal mechanisms that cause both tinnitus and PTSD.15 Evidence for increased oxidative stress and chronic inflammation has also been found in patients with PTSD.” (4)

*Adequate levels of acetylcholine is needed to help forget things like trauma memories. (The Cholinergic & Dopaminergic Systems: previous post)

Reducing glutamate in the diet and use of glutamate inhibitors may be protective as excess glutamate is formed as a result of damage to hair cells.

When hair cells become damaged, gluta-mate—an excitatory neurotransmitter responsible for converting vibrational sound into electrical signal—is produced in excessive amounts. Excessive amounts of gluta-mate are very toxic to neurons. Damage to peripheral auditory and somatosensory systems causes imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in the mid-brain auditory cortex and brainstem. This imbalance causes hyperactivity in the auditory cortex leading to the perception of phantom sounds (tinnitus).” (4)

Avoiding loud noise also protects the hair cells, which are motion sensitive and can be broken by physical pressure change. Loud noises do cause a change in the air pressure as the sound wave passes by – the vibration of a loud concert has the beat of the music.

From an old post:

  • A review of the negative side effects possible with an excess intake of the hormone calcitriol:  []

Ringing in the ears and inner ear pressure is not mentioned on the list but  – I am personally and professionally pretty sure that tinnitus can be part of the cluster of symptoms that might occur from a calcitriol overdose. The symptom list would be similar to a list of magnesium deficiency symptoms. The symptoms won’t go away simply by taking a magnesium supplement alone however. The intake of the vitamin D would continue to signal the bones to release calcium into the blood if it is being converted into hormone D. When excess of the calcitriol/hormone 1,25-D is present the intestines preferentially absorb calcium and magnesium is wasted in the kidneys and is poorly absorbed in the intestines.

An Epsom salt bath or foot soak can help relieve physical and mental symptoms and slightly reduce the ringing in the ears. Zinc, inositol and B vitamins seem to be involved in the tinnitus – magnesium alone doesn’t make it go away. B1 and zinc seem to be involved with the risk of cardiac arrhythmia as well as adequate supplies of taurine, an amino acid that can be converted from the more common cysteine but in the elderly that conversion can malfunction.

α9 and α7 are structurally similar, bad news doesn’t stop does it?

Back from the search engine – Structurally 7 and 9 are similar, (9 is curvier, haha): “Despite the recent upsurge in research interest in these subunits, there is much unknown about their functions and the underlying molecular mechanisms. They are most similar to the α7* nAChR; α-bungarotoxin and strychnine are antagonists of α7* and α9* receptors and α7* and α9* highly permeable to calcium. Recent evidence suggests a functional interaction of the subunits and potentially a structural association.” (6)

The alpha 9 and 10 subunits are not found within the brain’s cholinergic system, just in the inner ear, at the post-synapse area of the nerve connections – however the 9 and 10 subunit types are found throughout the rest of the body and immune system:

There is an emerging literature that the distribution of the α9 and α10 subunits in peripheral tissues is widespread and non-synaptic, regulated in disease states, and may not always be assembled as heteromeric receptors. One or both subunits are expressed in most immune cells, dorsal root ganglion, keratinocytes, brain glioblastoma, colon, human breast cancer. Their expression levels may be prognostic in cancer and osteoporosis, and recent evidence suggests they may be involved in immune regulation. Importantly, they are potential targets for treatment of pain, cancer, and inflammatory diseases.” (6)

The alpha-7 type of receptors are found in the colon and are involved in glutamate release. They may be involved in pain relief. “Additionally, α7 nAChRs located on DRG neuron terminals in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord modulate the release of glutamate and have been proposed to be involved in nicotine mediated analgesia [34].” (2)

A computer modeling image shows the α7 receptor being blocked by a snake toxin, (7), the receptor is made of five similar subunits that form a channel through the cell membrane. Once activated the channel allows certain minerals to pass through, such as calcium. Excess can cause overactivity to the point of cell death.

Figure 4. Structural model of the α7 receptor–α-Cbtx complex. The five subunits of the receptor are depicted with their β-sheets colored blue and the apical helices colored red and yellow. One toxin molecule is shown at an arbitrary subunit interface with its β-sheet in yellow and its backbone in red. (A) Top view of the model. (B) The receptor is seen perpendicularly to the 5-fold axis with the toxin in an equatorial position.
(Fruchart-Gaillard et al, 2002) (7)

How can this situation explain the antagonistic property of the snake toxin? Small ligands also bind at the interface of two α7 subunits (1013) on loops A, B, C, D, and F for ACh, nicotine or DHβE and A, B, C, and E for conotoxin ImI (α-ImI). This and previous (13) pairwise analyses indicate that α-ImI and α-Cbtx clearly bind to overlapping sites. Even both toxins possess an arginine residue that seem to establish homologous cation π interactions with the α7 receptor. ” (7)

Nicotine is a strong agonist of the α7 subunits, and activating that type of receptor helps reduce inflammation. (10, 13)

We examined the anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine, a potent α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonist, with regard to TLR expression and signaling during sepsis.” (10)

Nicotine for prevention of snake venom-like poisoning? Odd world today.

Lobeline sulfate is chemically similar to nicotine, but less potent of an activator of the nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors. (8)

Where there is a will, there is a way,”

– as my mother always said. And when the first attempt doesn’t work, you try something else until something works. That is the stick-with-method. Try, try again.

Feeling a little better, rather than worse, may be the goal – sorry. Autoimmune conditions may have occurred.

There are no guarantees in life and trying dietary solutions or any treatment may not restore full health. Infections or other traumatic damage can increase risk of autoimmune antibodies developing – and there is often ups and downs rather than any true cure like resolution. Once autoimmune antibodies are formed the memory immune cells remember. Avoiding any dietary chemicals that were similar to the one the body is reactive against can help reduce the level of antibodies that are currently being produced rather than a memory cell type waiting to be needed again. Wheat gluten is similar to the thyroid hormone for example.

Demyelination conditions such as the autoimmune like condition Multiple Sclerosis may involve misfolded proteins too.

Multiple sclerosis also has been found to likely involve misfolded proteins. “MS may be a transmissible protein misfolding disorder, study suggests. SAN DIEGO – Multiple sclerosis appears to be a transmissible protein misfolding disorder like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases, results of a new study suggest. ” (11)

Strategies that support myelination and prevent demyelination may also be helpful for protecting against a prion like toxin that does other damage too. Malnutrition is a risk factor for demyelinating conditions of which MS is one, however excess calories and carbohydrates may also be a risk factor. Our body needs to get hungry in order for the cellular debris mechanisms to function. When we are eating a lot of food, the body is busy using or storing those nutrients and there is no time or need to scavenge for extra tangled piles of misfolded proteins. Niacin, B vitamins, C, magnesium, CoQ10, are all needed for energy production in our mitochondria and also may help with the cellular debris functin.

  • Other tips for promoting good myelin coating around the long axons of nerve cells are on this webpage: G12. Demyelination.

See previous posts for more about the potential prion like risks of the spike protein:

Excess free iron & iron chelators

And about other risks such as blood clotting: Spike protein is a toxin. Please stop trusting the experiment.

Excess free iron is a frequent problem. Vitamin C would help, quercetin, resveratrol, artemisinin, lactoferrin, and possibly turmeric might all help as an iron chelator to protect against some of the vascular risks and excessive level of inflammatory cytokines.

Artemisinin is an iron chelator and helped me right away with post recovery fatigue. In 1-2 days had more energy. Took am & pm. Still using 1/day. It felt like anemia of chronic infection – standard body response to move iron out of pathogen risk.” (one of my Tweets) -> (artemisinin-arteannuin-b-and-covid-19/)

Anemia of chronic infection or inflammation (post) is a natural immune response of the body, which seems to be an over-response in the case of COVID19 and LongCovid. Iron is stored as ferritin instead of being made into new hemoglobin for immature red blood cells. Less oxygen carrying capacity is in the blood – but also less potential nutrients for a pathogen. This condition is readily reversible with vitamin C and iron chelators – and address the underlying chronic infection that is causing the immune response. – And in the meantime avoid high altitudes such as mountain drives or airplane flights as hypoxia and loss of consciousness may result. Airplane pilots have experienced some problems post CoV injections.

(Reuters) – United Airlines and its pilots’ union have reached an agreement to prohibit the airline from mandating COVID-19 vaccinations to its pilots, the Air Line Pilots Association said. “Pilots who elect not to be vaccinated will not be subject to any discipline,” “@GillianMcKeith. (ref)

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Reference List

  1. Farsalinos K, Eliopoulos E, Leonidas DD, Papadopoulos GE, Tzartos S, Poulas K. Nicotinic Cholinergic System and COVID-19: In Silico Identification of an Interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and Nicotinic Receptors with Potential Therapeutic Targeting Implications. Int J Mol Sci. 2020;21(16):5807. Published 2020 Aug 13. doi:10.3390/ijms21165807
  2. Lola Rueda Ruzafa, José Luis Cedillo, and Arik J. Hone. Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Involvement in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Interactions with Gut Microbiota. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18(3), 1189;
  3. Characterization of HA-tagged α9 and α10 nAChRs in the mouse cochlea.
  4. The Case for Using Multiple Antioxidants in Hearing Disorders.,
  5. α-conotoxin-IMI, α7 nAChR selective blocker.,
  6. Nicotinic Alpha9 and Alpha10 Subunits: Ancient Receptors in Modern Times and Modern Places, collection of 13 articles, Excerpt from: “About this Research Topic”,
  7. Fruchart-Gaillard C, Gilquin B, Antil-Delbeke S, et al. Experimentally based model of a complex between a snake toxin and the alpha 7 nicotinic receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002;99(5):3216-3221. doi:10.1073/pnas.042699899
  8. Lobeline sulfate, PubChem CID 120636, pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih,
  9. UniProtKB – Q9DEQ3 (3SO8_NAJAT), Protein: Neurotoxin homolog NL1, Naja atra (Chinese cobra)
  10. Tae-Hoon Kim, So-Jin Kim, Sun-Mee Lee, Stimulation of the α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Protects Against Sepsis by Inhibiting Toll-like Receptor via Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Activation, The Journal of Infectious Diseases, Volume 209, Issue 10, 15 May 2014, Pages 1668–1677,
  11. Randy Dotinga, MS may be a transmissible protein misfolding disorder, study suggests. Feb 2, 2018,,
  12. Zendehdel R, Fazli Z, Mazinani M. Neurotoxicity effect of formaldehyde on occupational exposure and influence of individual susceptibility to some metabolism., Environ Monit Assess. 2016 Nov;188(11):648. Epub 2016 Oct 31. parameters.
  13. de Jonge WJ, Ulloa L. The alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as a pharmacological target for inflammation. Br J Pharmacol. 2007;151(7):915-929. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0707264