Riboflavin – Vitamin B2

Riboflavin (also known as vitamin B2):

Riboflavin, vitamin B2, food sources and possible symptoms of deficiency.

Deficiencies of other B vitamins can cause a deficiency of riboflavin and vice versa. Riboflavin is involved in the metabolism of vitamin B6, niacin, folic acid and iron.  Riboflavin is also needed for metabolism of drugs and toxins and is essential for releasing energy from food.

Alcoholics, anorexics, and people low in other B vitamins are at risk of deficiency but otherwise deficiency is rare.  Riboflavin is in many foods.

Deficiency symptoms may include decreased red blood cell count with normal sized red blood cells; sore throat; magenta/red inflamed tongue, mouth, and throat; sore cracks at the sides of the mouth; and skin rashes.  Deficiency may increase risk of pre-eclampsia and age related cataracts.  Supplemental riboflavin was found helpful for preventing migraines.

Food Sources of Riboflavin (B2) include:

Fortified flour & cereal, whole grains, meats, fish, milk, eggs, meat, fish, beans, nuts, and seeds, nutritional yeast flakes, asparagus, broccoli, yellow summer squash, spinach.

Risks of overdose for water soluble B vitamins and vitamin C are rare:

B vitamins and vitamin C are water soluble, so overdose is rare.  Deficiency is more common because the nutrients are not stored like the fat soluble nutrients:  A, D, E, and K; and water soluble vitamins are not conserved by the kidneys like the electrolyte minerals:  calcium, sodium, magnesium, and potassium.

Riboflavin is a bright yellow nutrient and when taking higher doses in supplements may cause a bright yellow colored urine – it is non-toxic and would be less noticeable, a paler shade of yellow, when plenty of water is also being drunk throughout the day. Any time dehydration is present the color of the urine will be a darker shade and is a good reminder to try to drink plenty of water – 6-10 glasses roughly depending on body size, and amount of exercise performed and the level of heat or humidity in the environment.

REFERENCE USED FOR FOOD SOURCES & SYMPTOMS OF Riboflavin DEFICIENCY:

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Other References:

  1. [dietandfitnesstoday.com/riboflavin-in-beans.php]
  2. https://ndb.nal.usda.gov/ndb/foods/show/45194432?fgcd=&manu=&format=&count=&max=25&offset=&sort=default&order=asc&qlookup=nutritional+yeast&ds=&qt=&qp=&qa=&qn=&q=&ing=
  3. https://draxe.com/top-10-vitamin-b2-riboflavin-foods/
  4. http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/definition-riboflavin-6444.html
  5. https://www.swansonvitamins.com/blog/lindsey/types-of-squash-health-benefits

Thiamin: people with anorexia or alcoholism are more at risk for vitamin B1 deficiency

Thiamin (also called Thiamine or vitamin B1):

thiaminFood Sources of Thiamin (vitamin B1) include:
  • fortified flour or rice, whole grains;
  • lean pork, fish, eggs;
  • nutritional yeast;
  • cantaloupe;
  • acorn squash, asparagus, green vegetables;
  • beans, green peas;
  • nuts, sunflower and pumpkin seed kernels & other edible seeds including flax, sesame & chia.
Thiamin or vitamin B1 may have been the first vitamin to be discovered.

Thiamin is also known as vitamin B1. Historically it may have been the first vitamin to be discovered.  Around 2600 BC the symptoms of thiamin deficiency were described in Chinese literature.  Thiamin deficiency, or beriberi as it was commonly called, became a more frequent problem in some communities when white flour and polished rice were first introduced.  Milling brown rice removes thiamin from the grain along with the fibrous outer layer of the grains of rice.

Symptoms of Beriberi (Thiamin deficiency) can include:
  • rapid ‘fluttery’ heart rate;
  • enlarged heart;
  • edema or swelling of the extremities,
  • heart and lungs leading to breathing problems and eventually congestive heart failure; burning painful feet;
  • muscle weakness and pain;
  • Wernicke encephalopathy or Korsakoff psychosis are symptoms that may occur with more severe B1 deficiencies and which can include mental changes.
Deficiency of Thiamin is rare except with severe malnourishment or increased needs:

Chronic alcoholics and anorexic or other malnourished people are more at risk for thiamin deficiency.  Malaria and HIV may increase need for thiamin due to the infected cell’s increased use of the nutrient.  Renal patients on dialysis may need extra thiamin due to increased loss. The nutrient is fairly widely available and deficiencies are not typically found in people of average health with reasonably varied diets.

Reference used for food sources & symptoms of Thiamin deficiency:
Additional Reference used for Food Sources of Thiamin:

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.