Long Covid survivors – may have antibodies against several coronavirus

Cross-immunity to several human coronaviruses has been found in survivors with “LongCovid”, symptoms lasting months after the initial infectious symptoms. (1)

Mast cells can be activated by viruses. (2) People suffering with over activity of mast cells tend to not have very many colds or flu symptoms, even though they may have many other symptoms associated with the excessive inflammation and elevated histamine levels. Polyphenolic flavonoids are known to reduce mast cell inflammation and some have antiviral benefits such as luteolin. (2) Suppressing a mast cell response while trying to actively fight a viral infection would be limiting the body’s natural defense against a virus.

A recent report correlated coronaviruses infection with activation of mast cells and subsequent cytokine storms in the lungs. 7 Mast cells are known to be triggered by viruses. 8″ Inhibition of mast cell‐associated inflammation could be accomplished with natural molecules, especially the polyphenolic flavonoids. 23 The flavone luteolin (not lutein, which is a carotenoid) has been shown to have broad antiviral properties.24, 25, 26” (2)

In Long Covid there may be residual virus but it is possible, maybe probable, that there is simply an overactivation of the mast cell system continuing to react to any food or toxin or even stress. See previous post.

Colds and flu often last longer for people with Mast Cell Activation Syndrome or Histamine Intolerance. This is because these viral infections can set off a cascade of mast cell reactions lasting weeks or a few months.” (6)

Mast cell activation may vary based on what each individual is more sensitive to, as well as including some more typical problem foods or chemicals that everyone with overactive mast cells might find problematic. Symptoms can include a broad range and include mental health and behavior changes so diagnostic approaches might miss an inflammatory as the cause. See previous post.

Luteolin is found in celery, thyme, green peppers, and chamomile tea. (3) Some with over activity of mast cells might do better with the celery and thyme. Green peppers may be a mast cell/histamine problem food (4) and chamomile tea is a flower which some people with seasonal allergies (mast cell activation) may react to. See reference G10.12, Nrf2 Promoting Foods, chamomile tea is discussed and may be beneficial for people who are not sensitized to its pollen.

The excess Interleukin-6 that is commonly seen in COVID-19 illness may lead to over active mast cells in people who did not have seasonal allergy or Mast Cell Activation Syndrome symptoms for most of their lives (it can be genetic based). “Constant IL-6 exposure can cause the body to form more reactive mast cells.” (5)

The terminology and diagnostic criteria for mast cell over activity is still new. Some problems may include stimulation of mast cells without complete degranulation – release of histamine and other cytokines (IL-6 is a cytokine – a cell signal chemical). The name ‘Mast Cell Mediator Disorders (MCMD)’ has been established for symptoms involving less severe mast cell activity than full degranulation. (7)

How mast cell activation relates to Long Covid survivors may also vary based on personal genetic and other unknown factors in their environment or body burden of toxins (yes, we tend to contain a large mixture of modern toxins and heavy metals, (8)). Histamine containing or promoting foods could be a factor that varies based on a person’s diet and food sensitivities, in addition to mast cell activity throughout the body. Diet information and links were included in the first post about histamine in this series.

Based on the information about MCAS and histamine foods, I have improved my own odd symptoms and it is a huge relief to have found a cause that can be controlled, with some difficulty, and which explains the odd behavior and mood extremes. Histamine is involved in a wide range of brain functions and is involved in balance, not too much or too little activity – homeostatic control. Anxiety or whirling thoughts that only escalate are frightening and calling it a psychiatric problem wouldn’t help a histamine problem get any better. (Histamine’s function was included in the previous post.)

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Reference List

  1. Rafael Osswald, @RafaelOsswald, Tweet about research findings regarding crossimmunity in LongCovid survivors, Nov. 16, 2020 https://twitter.com/RafaelOsswald/status/1328408081487835152?s=20
  2. Theoharides TC. COVID-19, pulmonary mast cells, cytokine storms, and beneficial actions of luteolin. Biofactors. 2020;46(3):306-308. doi:10.1002/biof.1633 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7267424/
  3. USDA/Agricultural Research Service. “Luteolin stars in study of healthful plant compounds.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 16 July 2010. https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2010/07/100708141622.htm
  4. Hidden in Plain Sight: Histamine Problems, westonaprice.org, https://www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/modern-diseases/hidden-in-plain-sight-histamine-problems/
  5. Mast cells: MCAS, genetics, and solutions, geneticlifehacks.com, https://www.geneticlifehacks.com/mast-cells/ https://www.geneticlifehacks.com/mast-cells/#Other_substances_that_activate_mast_cells
  6. Immune Supports and Supplements that May Reduce Risk of Cold or Flu in Mast Cell Activation Syndrome and Histamine Intolerance. mastcell360.com, https://mastcell360.com/immune-supports-and-supplements-that-may-reduce-risk-of-cold-or-flu-in-mast-cell-activation-syndrome-and-histamine-intolerance/
  7. Theoharides TC, Tsilioni I, Ren H. Recent advances in our understanding of mast cell activation – or should it be mast cell mediator disorders?. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2019;15(6):639-656. doi:10.1080/1744666X.2019.1596800 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7003574/
  8. Gennings C, Ellis R, Ritter JK. Linking empirical estimates of body burden of environmental chemicals and wellness using NHANES data. Environ Int. 2012;39(1):56-65. doi:10.1016/j.envint.2011.09.002 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3249606/

Glyphosate increases histamine, both may be a factor in COVID19

Recent posts include a long one on glyphosate, biofuel, and liver disease and how it may be increasing inflammation in severe COVID19; and two other posts (a, b) are about how an immune allergy type reaction increases histamine and a variety of symptoms, and which may be a factor in LongCovid. Foods and the health of our intestinal microbiome, bacteria and other microbes, can also increase histamine directly or indirectly. Some foods contain histamine and others cause more histamine to be produced. Glyphosate residue may also cause an increase in histamine. (1)

Genetics may be a factor in who is more at risk for having excess histamine. There is an enzyme needed to break down the excess histamine from foods, within the intestinal tract, which some people may not be able to make. It can be purchased as a supplement and taken with meals. Other people may have overactive mast cells which are the type of immune cell that produces histamine throughout the body. (1 , 2)

If the mast cells are overactive, MCAS – Mast Cell Activation Syndrome, symptoms may be more severe than a seasonal allergy type of histamine reaction and may include: “rashes, hives, itching, flushing, fainting, headache, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), fatigue, chronic pain, trouble breathing and many more.” (2) To complicate trying to figure out if this is a problem for oneself or a patient the overactivity of mast cells may also be associated with other complex conditions that have varied symptoms too, including: “allergies, autism, autoimmune disorders, cancer, diabetes, Ehler-Danlos syndrome, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), fibromyalgia, Lyme disease, mastocytosis, migraines and obesity.” (2) Add the various symptoms together and a person might have a confusing mixture of “twenty to thirty symptoms” and feel “extremely ill.” (2)

Lab tests frequently are not helpful for many of the conditions or MCAS and it may also be unclear whether a person is having histamine symptoms because of intestinal digestion or microbiome problems or due to overactive mast cells throughout the body. Severity of symptoms may be worse if the problem is related to mast cell activation throughout the body. Treatment approach would also be different. Some people might be helped by use of the digestive histamine enzyme while others wouldn’t need it. Both types, digestive histamine excess and mast cell over activity, would be helped by decreasing histamine containing foods or ones that increase release of histamine from mast cells. Eliminating all histamine from the diet would be impractical if not impossible. Reducing the amount might make a significant difference though in reducing the negative symptoms. More details about identifying the type of problem with lab tests or other clinical indicators and an elimination diet description are available here: westonaprice.org. (2)

Glyphosate as a stimulator of histamine release (1) would create a different list of foods to avoid. See the previous post “a long one on glyphosate,” the list of tips are summarized at the top of the post, so the full length can be skipped if desired.

Over active mast cells may involve cannabinoid deficiency. Mast cells have both Cannabinoid Receptor Type 1 and Type 2 on the cell surface and when activated they cause an inhibition of the mast cell.

Mast cells contain CB1 and CB2 receptors, which when activated inhibit mast cell release (R). Research shows that cannabinoids can suppress mast cell degranulation. … Our results show that CB1 and CB2 mediate diametrically opposed effects on cAMP levels in mast cells. ” (3, 4)

We have previously shown that exposure of mast cells to cannabinoids that bind to both CB1 and CB2 cause a net suppression in the proinflammatory responses.” […] “At short time points, ligation of either CB1 or CB2 leads to a suppression of cAMP levels. However, over a longer exposure time course, the cAMP responses that follow ligation of the two receptors are diametrically opposed. These results allow us to draw two conclusions. First, the results imply that CB1 and CB2 receptors are not redundant when co-expressed in mast cells. Secondly, the results suggest that the two receptors couple to distinct signalling pathways that diverge downstream of the Gαi/o proteins to which they are both coupled.” (4) – that may suggest that a short time, small amount of THC & CBD may not help suppress the mast cells, by increasing cAMP sufficiently, a longer exposure, larger dose is needed – and that both the CB1 and CB2 receptor types need to be activated for the suppression of mast cell. CBD activates CB2 receptors and THC activates CB1 receptors.

CBD alone without THC maybe ineffective at treating dysfunctional mast cells because THC has a strong binding affinity for both CB1 and CB2 receptors, cannabidiol (CBD) has no particular binding affinity. Instead, many of the therapeutic benefits of CBD are created through indirect actions.” (3)

Edibles or smoke? “However, when it comes to MCAS patients who are more severe, they tend to not tolerate ingesting the Medical Cannabis oil or edibles but may can inhale the actual Organic Medical Cannabis Flower and find great relief from MCAS symptoms.” (3)

More information about mast cells and what they do is included in Mast Cells: MCAS, genetics and solutions. geneticlifehacks.com (1) Viruses can activate mast cells, which then release histamine and other inflammatory cytokines and chemicals. The immune mast cells are also called granulocytes because when activated they release little packets, granules, full of the inflammatory chemicals. Flu virus has been found to activate mast cells and mast cell inhibitors helped reduce lung damage and mortality in severe cases of influenza. Too much inhibition during an active infection might not be helpful though, because the goal is to kill the virus infected cells or other pathogens that can activate mast cells. (1)

What does histamine do?

Brain histamine promotes wakefulness and orchestrates disparate behaviors and homeostatic functions.” […] “Dysfunctions of the histaminergic system may also contribute to the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and its murine model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis,” […] “Histamine neurons send broad projections within the CNS that are organized in functionally distinct circuits impinging on different brain regions.” (5)

Histamine promotes wakefulness, so an excess may lead to insomnia problems, and it affects a lot of varied behaviors and balance of functions throughout the body, disparate – a wide range of behaviors, which suggests why there can be such a wide range of symptoms, and homeostatic – balance of body functions – no longer as able to stay at an even center, too tired, or too excited, too cold or too flushed, numbness or pain – roughly. Too itchy too often.

Histamine itch and non-histamine itch are mainly mediated by TrpV1 and TrpA1 respectively. In addition, Trp channels can be coupled to cytokine receptors, toll like receptors or may even be directly activated by pruritogens.” (6)

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can involve overactive mast cells and excess histamine activating Trp channels in the intestines, (1), leading to sudden diarrhea and/or pain. “Pruritigens” refers to other chemicals that directly activate Trp channels such as horseradish or Latex that cause itching, (pruritus). Others may cause the bowel symptoms of IBD including cinnamaldehyde from cinnamon, capsaicin from hot pepper, curcumin in turmeric, and other chemicals in spices or herbs like ginger, cloves, and mint. Previous post 1, post 2/webpage G3.5-3.6.2, G5.

Yes, it is not easy to figure out what you can eat if you have Mast Cell Activation Syndrome, or to safely use as skin care products or medications as some of the ingredients might be Trp channel activators.

Medications that may help reduce mast cell activation in the condition of Irritable Bowel Syndrome, similar to Inflammatory bowel disease but less severe, include mast cell stabilizers and “a medication to reduce prostaglandin E2 synthesis (e.g. a COX2 inhibitor) stopped the hypersensitivity in the animal model of IBS. [ref]” (1) Pomegranate peel extract and other antioxidants may act in part through COX2 inhibition. (previous post) Prep tips for pomegranate & the peel: G13.

Mast cell activation may also be involved in autoimmune diseases including Multiple sclerosis, Type 1 Diabetes, and Rheumatoid arthritis. (1) The excessive release of cytokines and inflammatory chemicals can lead to cell damage in surrounding tissue. Mast cells tend to be located within specific tissue areas of the body or along epithelial layers (skin and membrane linings of blood vessels or other tissue), rather than be free moving like some other types of immune white blood cells. (1) Some people may have overactivity in some areas of the body rather than throughout the entire body.

Regarding COVID19 illness, the cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) tends to be present in excess, (8), and it is a mast cell activator. (1) Vitamin C can help inhibit IL-6. (7)

Psychological stress causes mast cells to release their histamine and other chemicals – uh oh, time to think serenely about that. (1)

Tips to worry less – can you do anything about them? If no, try to let them go. Writing worries on notes and putting them in a worry jar is one idea – you did something about it. You can look through your worries later. If yes, plan your time – 1. write down your goals, long term – 5-10 years, mid length, this year, and short term, this day/week/month, and 2. make an action plan, what steps to take today, write a list. 3. Do your plan, cross off your list items. It can feel more organized and good to check off your short term goals, and more peaceful to have a plan. (9)

Regarding the complexity of Mast Cell Activation Syndrome, or histamine from food – writing down your symptoms and daily food, beverages, and other lifestyle issues that standout from your routine can help to start seeing a pattern of which foods or habits might be adding to the problem. Elimination diets are quiet simple to start and need to be followed for a couple weeks to get the body cleared out of the potential problem foods and hopefully start feeling better, whether itchy, headaches, fatigue, brain-fog, or pain, numbness, or other symptoms. Then add only one thing back and see if symptoms return. Symptoms may be fairly immediate, or the next day or two so gradual reintroduction will be easiest to track whether it seems to cause symptoms.

Lab tests and other help and medication may be nice too, if available, but an elimination diet can be done fairly easily and safely. Stick to a variety of foods from the different food groups and read bottles on any supplements or medications to check for ingredients that might also be trigger substances ‘starch’ is usually wheat or corn based unless specifically labeled like tapioca or arrowroot starch. Other post (a) includes links with a food diary and information about elimination diets for histamine issues. Not all people have exactly the same sensitivities and there can be an additive effect, many problem foods on the same day as stress – may become a flare up. Some of the lists vary and some are more restricted than others, but most have similarities in the worst risk foods. Starting with eliminating some of those and seeing if you start feeling better can also be a way to work towards learning what are problem foods for you personally.

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Reference List

  1. Mast cells: MCAS, genetics, and solutions, geneticlifehacks.com, https://www.geneticlifehacks.com/mast-cells/
  2. Hidden in Plain Sight: Histamine Problems, westonaprice.org, https://www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/modern-diseases/hidden-in-plain-sight-histamine-problems/
  3. Www.TickedOffMastCell.Org, Medical Cannabis: Mast Cell Activation Syndrome, 10/24/2019, ibcnj.com https://ibcnj.com/medical-cannabis-mast-cell-activation-syndrome/
  4. Small-Howard AL, Shimoda LMN, Adra CN and Turner H, Anti-inflammatory potential of CB1-mediated cAMP elevation in mast cells. Biochem. J. (2005) 388, 465–473 https://anandaenterprises.com.au/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/Anti-inflammatory-Potential-of-CB1-mediated-CAMP-Elevation-in-Mast-Cells.pdf.pdf
  5. Passani MB, Panula P, Lin JS. Histamine in the brain. Front Syst Neurosci. 2014;8:64. Published 2014 Apr 28. doi:10.3389/fnsys.2014.00064 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4009418/
  6. Sun S, Dong X. Trp channels and itch. Semin Immunopathol. 2016;38(3):293-307. doi:10.1007/s00281-015-0530-4 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4798920/
  7. Härtel C, Puzik A, Göpel W, Temming P, Bucsky P, Schultz C: Immunomodulatory Effect of Vitamin C on Intracytoplasmic Cytokine Production in Neonatal Cord Blood Cells. Neonatology 2007;91:54-60. doi: 10.1159/000096972 https://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/96972#
  8. Grifoni E, Valoriani A, Cei F, et al. Interleukin-6 as prognosticator in patients with COVID-19. J Infect. 2020;81(3):452-482. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2020.06.008 https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7278637/
  9. Gerry McCann, How to Manage Your Time Worry Less and Discover more Happiness, youtube.com, https://youtu.be/RgBb4xNrM-s

Histamine excess – self help through diet.

Some foods may be particularly beneficial for helping people who tend to have too much histamine. Personal strategies from a non-medical sufferer are available here: Shutting Down Histamine Reactions (Quickly) healinghistamine.com.

Foods or herbs suggested include: Apple, Fennel, Watercress, Parsley, Broccoli, Cauliflower, Ginger, Thyme, Rosemary, Turmeric, and the phytonutrient quercetin. healinghistamine.com. Without looking for further reference links – that list does include many foods and herbs that I have found helpful over the years and currently. Fennel is available as a vegetable, celery like, and also as crunchy seeds.

Having learned of the link between foods and histamine levels while writing the last post, it has helped to avoid the foods that are mentioned, or reduce them. A bad reaction for me, can be very odd behavior and anxiety. Histamine excess symptoms of congestion and seasonal pollen allergies have been a long term problem for me and many of the foods recommended to avoid I had already learned to avoid, but others I wasn’t aware of the connection.

Bad mood changes are later in the day or the next day or two, so making a connection between a food and a symptom can be difficult. It can be simpler to keep a basic meal pattern and only change one thing at a time, so it is easier to recognize a link between symptoms the next day and a new food.

Health is worth some work.

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

Reference List

  1. Yasmina, Shutting Down Histamine Reactions (Quickly), healinghistamine.com, https://healinghistamine.com/shutting-down-histamine-reactions-quickly/