Glymphatic system – yes- sleep helps protect against Alzheimer’s dementia

Following up on Friday’s easy answer day (previous post) – yes, the glymphatic system of the brain does help protect against Alzheimer’s dementia, (7, 8, 14, 17), and sleep, especially one of the deeper stages of sleep (low-delta), is important. (10, 11, 13) Sleeping on your right side may help promote better fluid drainage through the glymphatic system of the brain (sleeping on your right side puts the left side of your body with your heart farther up above the rest of your body, a pillow between your knees and a neck support may also help). (Social media link, reference source: Neurology Reviews, 2) (12) The circulation by the heart can help move fluid through the brain but only indirectly due to the on/off pressure of the arterial pulse. The regular lymphatic system of the body is a drainage system for the brain fluid system but the blood brain barrier prevents direct interaction. Specialized water pumps in some types of brain glial cells help provide circulation within the brain by pumping water in two directions within the second layer of thick membranes that separate the soft brain tissue from the bony skull. (3)(4)(15)(16)

Overall the fluid within the brain does circulate and there is a visible, small, pulsing movement that has been amplified and can be observed in a video: (5). The spread of a dye within the brain can be observed in a different type of brain scan, the fluid diffusion is not rapid taking 24 hours to reach a maximal point, and the movement of the dye was most prevalent (see color chart) near the skull: (6). The glymphatic system as defined as the specialized glial cells with water pump channels is located in the area near the skull. (4) Diffusion of fluid throughout deeper areas of the brain where the blood brain barrier is not found can occur to a small extent through membranes. (9)

Exercise may also help the glymphatic system function better. (18) The lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes in the neck are the initial drainage route for the glymphatic system cleansing of the various fluid filled areas of the brain. Stretching exercises and rhythmic walking type exercise can help move lymphatic fluid from farther areas of the body to the torso and urinary system for eventual excretion.

Small amounts of alcohol – one third of a serving; to moderate – one or two servings per day (too much may not be helpful); may help the detoxification of the brain fluid by mechanisms that are not well understood yet but which seem to involve the glymphatic system. (19, 20) The mechanism may involve the effect of alcohol on GABA receptors, it can activate them which in general would have a calming/inhibitory effect, (23), however GABA receptors also are involved in promoting more production of the water pump Aqaporin 4 channels in neural stem cells within the subependymal zone. (24) The subependymal zone is in the lateral part of the lateral ventricle which is a cerebrospinal fluid filled area near the center of the brain, (27), which is involved in fluid balance and drainage of the glymphatic system. (25) GABA receptors are also involved with flow of chloride ions across membranes (for an inhibitory effect on nerve signaling, (pp 126-131, 1), and affect fluid balance in areas of the brain without the blood brain barrier which makes diffusion of water across the brain membranes more possible. (26)

Alcohol also inhibits the action of the excitatory neurotransmitter glutamate, particularly at the NMDA receptor, (23), which is an excitatory ion channel and also allows calcium to enter the cell where the mineral can activate many functions within the cell. (pp 120-126, 1) If drinking alcohol is not preferred or legal due to age or advised due to pregnancy or possibility of becoming pregnant then GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is available as an over the counter supplement, typically in a form that melts in the mouth to promote more direct absorption. While it is not typically referred to as an amino acid due to its role as a neurotransmitter, it is simply an amino acid, a smaller molecule from which proteins can be formed. The level of GABA a has been found to be reduced in the brains of patients with severe Alzheimer’s Disease and its use as a treatment has been studied, (29), levels in other abnormal brain cells were found to be elevated in a specific area of the brain of patients with Alzheimer’s Disease and treatment to increase transport of GABA has also been studied. (30)

Or sleep, in the form of a short nap, may also help promote GABA. Naps may benefit our health in part because of a beneficial effect on GABA promotion by increased glymphatic action in the brain – twenty minutes of sleep may be adequate. (28)

An overview of the glymphatic system and lifestyle and dietary tactics that might improve its function are described in a video by a nutritionist: (21); and also in a self-help style article by a different person: (22).

Some types of magnesium supplements including magnesium threonate may also help. Magnesium within the brain has many functions including inhibiting the NMDA glutamate receptor which would prevent excess calcium from entering the cell. (pp 120-126, 1)

We tend to hear about neurotransmitters such as serotonin for depression or dopamine and Parkinson’s disease, yet we rarely hear that calcium is the mineral that signals the release of both of those and over one hundred other neurotransmitters that are involved in nerve signals within the brain or throughout the body (page 85, 1.Neuroscience, 6th Ed.). Neurotransmitters include excitatory and inhibitory chemicals and they activate or inhibit the firing of a nerve signal. GABA can be a calming/inhibitory neurotransmitter that may be low when anxiety is a problem. Magnesium is the mineral inside cells which helps control how much calcium will be allowed to enter. Excess calcium can cause excess release of neurotransmitters. Magnesium deficiency can also be involved when anxiety is a symptom.

Adequate fluid is also likely important for adequate cleansing of waste from the brain by the glymphatic system. Problems with edema/swelling in other areas of the body or problems with hypertension may indicate problems with the lymphatic system in general. Moderate exercise helps the muscle power of movement also move extracellular fluid and lymphatic fluid through the lymphatic vessels to lymph nodes to be filtered by blood cells. Waste is removed into blood vessels for later excretion by the kidneys.

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4326841/Reference: pp 85-112, “Synaptic Transmission,” Neuroscience, 6th Edition, Editors D. Purves, G.J. Augustine, D. Fitzpatrick, W.C. Hall, A.S. LaMantia, R.D. Mooney, ML. Platt, L.E. White, (Sinauer Associates, Oxford University Press, 2018, New York) (Barnes&Noble)
  2. Glymphatic System May Play Key Role in Removing Brain Waste, Neurology Reviews, 2016 October;24(10):13   https://www.mdedge.com/neurologyreviews/article/114150/alzheimers-cognition/glymphatic-system-may-play-key-role-removing
  3. Understanding the Glymphatic System, Neuronline, adapted from the SfN Short Course The Glymphatic System by Nadia Aalling, MSc, Anne Sofie Finmann Munk, BSc, Iben Lundgaard, PhD, and Maiken Nedergaard, MD, DMSc http://neuronline.sfn.org/Articles/Scientific-Research/2018/Understanding-the-Glymphatic-System
  4. Tsutomu Nakada, Ingrid L. Kwee, Fluid Dynamics Inside the Brain Barrier: Current Concept of Interstitial Flow, Glymphatic Flow, and Cerebrospinal Fluid Circulation in the Brain. The Neuroscientist, May 24, 2018, http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1073858418775027#articleCitationDownloadContainer
  5. Bruce Goldman, The beating brain: A video captures the organ’s rhythmic pulsations. Scope, Stanford Medicine, July 5, 2018, https://scopeblog.stanford.edu/2018/07/05/the-beating-brain-a-video-captures-the-organs-rhythmic-pulsations/?linkId=53912604
  6. Geir Ringstad, Lars M. Valnes, Anders M. Dale, et al., Brain-wide glymphatic enhancement and clearance in humans assessed with MRI. JCI Insight. 2018;3(13):e121537 https://insight.jci.org/articles/view/121537?utm_content=buffer13f62&utm_medium=social&utm_source=twitter.com&utm_campaign=buffer
  7. Brain discovery could block aging’s terrible toll on the mind. University of Virginia Health System, EurekAlert! Science News, July 25, 2018, https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2018-07/uovh-bdc072518.php
  8. Da Mesquita S., Louveau A., Vaccari A., et al., Functional aspects of meningeal lymphatics in ageing and Alzheimer’s disease, Nature, 185,191, Vol 560, Issue 7717, 2018/08/01. https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-018-0368-8
  9. Albargothy N. J., Johnston D. A., MacGregor‑Sharp M., Convective influx/glymphatic system: tracers injected into the CSF enter and leave the brain along separate periarterial basement membrane pathways. Acta Neuropathologica (2018) 136:139–152 https://link.springer.com/epdf/10.1007/s00401-018-1862-7?shared_access_token=oYhOYaeYOAlkFhECIjAc6Pe4RwlQNchNByi7wbcMAY7lrBk-VqU01OilsaKMVR9FXaHRKmFQ1tkD03g-Q04DmsYSxRC_gucPZRYlFW0xfyU2pYNfhmwcokVbMCreuzU3wBLsjKpRasKo-6HXTJLMHNXMqFbaSsQVIB34EgzIUsc%3D
  10. Tamara Bhandari, Lack of Sleep Boosts Levels of Alzheimer’s Proteins, The Source, Washington University in St. Louis, Dec. 27, 2017, https://source.wustl.edu/2017/12/lack-sleep-boosts-levels-alzheimers-proteins/
  11. Yo-El S Ju, Sharon J Ooms, Courtney Sutphen, et al., Slow wave sleep disruption increases cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-β levels. Brain, Vol 140, Issue 8, 1 August 2017, Pages 2104–2111, Oxford Academic, https://academic.oup.com/brain/article/140/8/2104/3933862
  12. Krista Burns, American Posture Institute: Proper Sleeping Posture for ‘Brain Drain,’ April 5, 2017, https://americanpostureinstitute.com/proper-sleeping-posture-for-brain-drain/
  13. Patricia Farrell, Sleep: Everyone Needs It and So Do You, March 16, 2017, https://www.amazon.com/dp/152061294X
  14. Melanie D. Sweeney, Berislav V. Zlokovic, A lymphatic waste-disposal system implicated in Alzheimer’s disease. July 25, 2018, https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-018-05763-0?utm_source=twt_na&utm_medium=social&utm_campaign=NNPnature
  15. Nadia Aalling Jessen, Anne Sofie Finmann Munk, Iben Lundgaard, Maiken Nedergaard, The Glymphatic System – A Beginners Guide, Neurochem Res. 2015 Dec; 40(12): 2583–2599. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4636982/
  16. Maiken Nedergaard, Steven A. Goldman, Brain Drain, Sci Am. 2016 Mar; 314(3): 44–49. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5347443/
  17. Rainey-Smith S. R., Mazzucchelli G. N., Villimagne V. L., et al. Genetic Variation in Aquaporin-4 Moderates the Relationship Between Sleep and Brain Aβ-amyloid burden. Translational  Psychiatry, (2018) 8:47 https://www.nature.com/articles/s41398-018-0094-x.epdf?author_access_token=iK09AkugOzYXUjXJCpGfIdRgN0jAjWel9jnR3ZoTv0P4SU0l7P8A1C64dg2xJ-HX7jlpuvyMeHzBYm6I5D0yMRBsx023MtG5Y3KNpj4EoNEqA4ELFuByqeysfTCRKZdGegxohMN9WLBb_S6H0UZYpw%3D%3D
  18. Brown B., Rainey-Smith S. R., Dore V., et al., Self-Reported Physical Activity is Associated with Tau Burden Measured by Positron Emission Tomography. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease, vol. 63, no. 4, pp. 1299-1305, May 30, 2018 https://content.iospress.com/articles/journal-of-alzheimers-disease/jad170998
  19. Chloe Chaplain, Drinking wine every day could help prevent Alzheimer’s, experts say. London Evening Standard, June 6, 2018, https://www.standard.co.uk/news/health/drinking-wine-every-day-could-help-prevent-alzheimers-experts-say-a3856646.html
  20. In Wine, There’s Health: Low Levels of Alcohol Good for the Brain. Feb. 2, 2018, University of Rochester Medical Center, https://www.urmc.rochester.edu/news/story/5268/in-wine-theres-health-low-levels-of-alcohol-good-for-the-brain.aspx
  21. Brianna Diorio, Glymphatic System 101, video,August 8, 2018,  https://vimeo.com/283708099?ref=tw-share
  22. Sydney, How To Detox Your Brain By Hacking Your Glymphatic System. A Healthy Body, May 18, 2018, http://www.a-healthy-body.com/how-to-detox-your-brain-by-hacking-your-glymphatic-system/
  23. The Effects of Alcohol on the Brain, The Scripps Research Institute, https://www.scripps.edu/newsandviews/e_20020225/koob2.html
  24. Li Y, Schmidt-Edelkraut U, Poetz F, et al. γ-Aminobutyric A Receptor (GABAAR) Regulates Aquaporin 4 Expression in the Subependymal Zone: RELEVANCE TO NEURAL PRECURSORS AND WATER EXCHANGE. The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2015;290(7):4343-4355. doi:10.1074/jbc.M114.618686. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4326841/ (24)
  25. Plog BA, Nedergaard M. The glymphatic system in CNS health and disease: past, present and future. Annual review of pathology. 2018;13:379-394. doi:10.1146/annurev-pathol-051217-111018. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5803388/ (25)
  26. Cesetti Tiziana, Ciccolini Francesca, Li Yuting, GABA Not Only a Neurotransmitter: Osmotic Regulation by GABAAR Signaling. Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, Vol. 6, 2012, https://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fncel.2012.00003 DOI=10.3389/fncel.2012.00003 ISSN=1662-5102 (26)
  27. Kazanis I. The subependymal zone neurogenic niche: a beating heart in the centre of the brain: How plastic is adult neurogenesis? Opportunities for therapy and questions to be addressed. Brain. 2009;132(11):2909-2921. doi:10.1093/brain/awp237. (27)
  28. Robert I Henkin, Mona Abdelmeguid, Sleep, glymphatic activation and phantosmia inhibition. The FASEB Journal, Vol 31, No. 1_supplement, April 2017, https://www.fasebj.org/doi/abs/10.1096/fasebj.31.1_supplement.749.4  (28)
  29. Solas M, Puerta E, Ramirez MJ. Treatment Options in Alzheimer’s Disease: The GABA Story., Curr Pharm Des. 2015;21(34):4960-71. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26365140 (29)
  30. Zheng Wu, Ziyuan Guo, Marla Gearing, Gong Chen, Tonic inhibition in dentate gyrus impairs long-term potentiation and memory in an Alzheimer’s disease model. Nature Communications, 5,  Article number: 4159 (2014) https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms5159 (30)

Pumpkin seeds – rich in zinc

Pumpkin seed kernels, raw, unsalted.

Pumpkin seed kernels are a good source of protein, essential fats, fiber, magnesium and other vitamins and minerals – and a great source of zinc which may be lacking in vegetarian or vegan diets. (Pumpkin Seeds – Benefits, nutrition and dietary tips.) (Other vegetarian sources of zinc.)

Work is progressing on the development of pumpkin seed flour for use as a food thickening substance for use in gravies or other sauces or stews. It would increase the protein, essential fatty acids, and other trace nutrient content of the resulting foods. (10) The use of pumpkin seeds in the diet may also prove to be protective against cancer and liver or kidney injury; and as a good source of antioxidants such as carotenoids (vitamin A family of nutrients) the use of pumpkin seeds in the diet may prove to be helpful against many conditions that involve excess oxidative stress. (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) They are also a source of vitamin E (tocopherols), other phytosterols, and linoleic acid, a beneficial polyunsaturated fat. Pumpkin seed oil may be helpful in wound healing. (15) Pumpkin seeds are also a good source of phospholipids, (16), which are important for skin and membrane health.

Pumpkins are considered a drought tolerant plant for gardeners. Adequate water is needed to grow larger pumpkin and squash but the vines can survive limited water conditions. The seeds of other summer and winter squash are also nutrient rich and also may be more drought tolerant plants. (11, 12) Enough but not too much water at the right times are critical. Flooding or severe drought may both harm the garden yield. Mulching and drip irrigation or other watering methods applied at optimal stages of growth can be the water thrifty solution for best yield. (13, 14)

The seeds of butternut squash and some types of winter squash can be collected when trimming the squash and later toasted and eaten as a crunchy nutritious snack. India grocery markets may also have shelled squash seeds available for sale. They are slightly smaller and paler in color than the shelled pumpkin kernels in the image above.

Magnesium is one of the beneficial nutrients found in pumpkin seeds. It is a mineral that is needed in greater quantity during pregnancy and high blood pressure/hypertension can be a symptom of deficiency. Preeclampsia and the more severe eclampsia are complications characterized by high blood pressure and edema/swelling that can occur during pregnancy. Toxins collect in the excess fluid buildup and can risk a brain condition similar to hypertension encephalopathy in the more severe eclampsia. Seizure activity can result and death for the woman and expected infant are risks. Magnesium is used as an intravenous or intramuscular injection to reduce risk of the seizures during eclampsia. The mineral seems to help protect the blood brain barrier and reduce swelling in the brain during eclampsia. It’s role as an antioxidant to reduce free radical toxins may be involved but the exact mechanism for its benefit in eclampsia is not known. (2, page 139)

More information about preclampsia is available in a previous post, and more information about food sources and supplement sources of magnesium is also available in a previous post.

I have several writing projects in draft mode however they overlap – pumpkin seeds, a good source of magnesium and zinc, helped my previous prenatal clients who had a history of preeclampsia or high blood pressure in a previous pregnancy prevent a reocurrence of the problem. Why? Possibly because of the magnesium and other beneficial nutrients which could be protecting the blood brain barrier and might then also be helpful for preventing harm to oligodendrocytes and protect against demyelination – a risk that can occur with some types of encephalopathy (3).

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

  1. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4827242/Megan Ware, What are the health benefits of pumpkin seeds?, July 24, 2018, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/303864.php
  2. Mehmet Kaya, Bulent Ahishali, Chapter 9: The role of magnesium in edema and blood brain barrier disruption, page 139, in the book edited by Robert Vink, Mihai Nechifor, Magnesium in the Central Nervous System, University of Adelaide Press, 2011, adelaide.edu.au, free ebook pdf, https://www.adelaide.edu.au/press/titles/magnesium/magnesium-ebook.pdf  (2
  3. S. Love, Demyelinating Diseases, J Clin Pathol. 2006 Nov; 59(11): 1151–1159.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1860500/ (3)
  4. Scientific Studies collection on a commercial website by Pepo Farms, https://pepofarms.com.au/scientificstudies/ (4) which includes:
  5. M. Gossell-Williams, A. Davis, N. O’Connor, Inhibition of Testosterone-Induced Hyperplasia of the Prostate of Sprague-Dawley Rats by Pumpkin Seed Oil. Jun 2006, Vol. 9, No. 2 : 284 -286. 
  6. C. Z. Nkosi, A. R. Opoku, S. E. Terblanche, Antioxidative effects of pumpkin seed (Cucurbita pepo) protein isolate in CCl4-Induced liver injury in low-protein fed rats.
  7. Fahim AT Abd-el Fattah AA Agha AM Gad MZ
    Effect of pumpkin-seed oil on the level of free radical scavengers induced during adjuvant-arthritis in rats.
    In: Pharmacol Res (1995 Jan) 31(1):73-9 ISSN: 1043-6618
  8. Suphakarn VS Yarnnon C Ngunboonsri P, The effect of pumpkin seeds on oxalcrystalluria and urinary compositions of children in hyperendemic area. In: Am J Clin Nutr (1987 Jan) 45(1):115-21 ISSN: 0002-9165
  9. Matus Z Molnar P Szabo LG [Main carotenoids in pressed seeds (Cucurbitae semen) of oil pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo convar. pepo var. styriaca)] Olajtok (Cucurbita pepo convar. pepo var. styriaca) magjabol nyert presmaradek ossz-karotinoid-tartalmanak es karotinoid-osszetetelenek meghatarozasa. In: Acta Pharm Hung (1993 Sep) 63(5):247-56 ISSN: 0001-6659 (Published in Hungarian)  * The main carotenoids included per the Pepo Farms site: “The main components of the press-residue were lutein [3,3′-dihydroxy-alpha-carotene = (3R,3’R,6’R)-beta,epsilon-carotene-3,3′-diol; 52.5%] and beta- carotene (beta,epsilon-carotene; 10.1%). In addition to the above- mentioned pigments it was successful to reveal the presence of violaxanthin, luteoxanthin, auroxanthin epimers, lutein epoxide, flavoxanthin, chrysanthemaxanthin, 9(9′)-cis-lutein, 13(13′)-cis- lutein, 15-cis-lutein (central-cis)-lutein, alpha-cryptoxanthin, beta- cryptoxanthin and alpha-carotene (beta,epsilon-carotene) in small quantities.”  (4)
  10. Initial food technology research on the preparation and use of pumpkin seed flour for use in more nutritious gravy type sauces: Sharma G, Lakhawat S., Development, Quality Evaluation and Acceptability of Pumpkin Seed Flour Incorporated in Gravy. J Nutr Food Sci 7:613. doi: 10.4172/2155-9600.1000613      https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/development-quality-evaluation-and-acceptability-of-pumpkin-seed-flourincorporated-in-gravy-2155-9600-1000613.php?aid=91345
  11. EllenB, Growing Drought Tolerant Vegetables, June 9, 2009, ThriftyFun.com, https://www.thriftyfun.com/Growing-Drought-Tolerant-Vegetables.html (11)
  12. Troy Scott, Drought Tolerant Vegetables for your Garden, July 9 2018, HeavenlyGreens.com http://www.heavenlygreens.com/blog/drought-tolerant-vegetables-for-your-garden (12)
  13. Joan Morris, Vegetable Gardening in a Drought, mercurynews.com, April 1, 2015,  https://www.mercurynews.com/2015/04/01/vegetable-gardening-in-a-drought/ (13)
  14. Extension Utah State University, Vegetable Irrigation: Squash and Pumpkin, Horticulture/Vegetables/2015-4,   https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1744&context=extension_curall (14)
  15. Bardaa S, Ben Halima N, Aloui F, et al. Oil from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seeds: evaluation of its functional properties on wound healing in rats. Lipids in Health and Disease. 2016;15:73. doi:10.1186/s12944-016-0237-0. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4827242/ (15)
  16. Zh.Y. Petkova, G.A. Antova, Changes in the composition of pumpkin seeds (Cucurbita moschata) during development and maturation. Grassas Y Aceites, 66 (1), Jan–March 2015, e058. http://grasasyaceites.revistas.csic.es/index.php/grasasyaceites/article/viewFile/1523/1658 (16)

Why care about demyelination?

We need to care about demyelination as a society because it may be a factor underlying many conditions that have been occurring at increasing rates. The high cost of health care is not just due to the cost of individual medications or the price of hospitalization but is due to the additive cost of increased numbers of individuals needing care. Autism care alone is estimated to likely reach $500 billion by 2025 for care in the U.S. alone, (link), demyelination or disordered myelin formation is thought to be involved. Our food supply may provide calories but it may no longer be supporting health due to imbalance in some nutrients and lack of sufficient amounts of other nutrients – in addition to personal choices for some people leaning toward convenient and tasty foods that provide very few nutrients besides calories.

The other reason to care about demyelination as a society is because the early symptoms can occur for years without clear reasons and may disrupt relationships or the ability to hold a job – personality changes including anxiety and anger, paranoia and a short temper – problems with impulse control and the ability to follow through on planned actions or with communication and the ability to tell the truth instead of substituting other statements that may seem illogical and obviously far from the truth. Problems with impulse control and a tendency toward mood problems may also include an increased risk for suicide or self injury or violence towards others.

The medical research is complex and I haven’t seen all the loose threads together yet, so I will summarize my summary points in a more concise list here and am working on a more organized document elsewhere. This list combines my tips from the previous post with the work of the other summary article (22) — I was also given the link to another summary article which also has tips which I have not incorporated here. It provides an excellent overview about myelin production and function –selfhacked/myelin – what I and the authors of (22) and {selfhacked} have in common is that we all got sick and sought information about regaining our health for ourselves and are sharing the information in case it might help others.

My personal goal is to not become paralyzed (post: ALS & CBD receptors), number of clicks on a website is not something I pay attention to. The loose threads that I’ve woven together in this series of posts which are not included in the excellent selfhacked article are that a) many of the herbs or phytonutrients found helpful for myelin regeneration are Nrf2 promoting which is also important for myelin regeneration and/or reducing oxidative stress that may lead to more degeneration of myelin. b) Foods that are good for promoting Nrf2 often are also good sources of cannabinoids or phospholipids which can be protective. c) And preventing excessive cell death or excess intracellular calcium may decrease the excess production of cytokines by decreasing release of cannabinoids from cell membrane storage and their breakdown into arachidonic acid and eventual transformation into cytokines and other inflammatory chemicals.}: 

Strategies to help prevent the breakdown of myelin or help promote regeneration of myelin:

{In the past at different points in time, I personally have experienced and improved with supplementation or diet changes physical and mental symptoms of vitamin B1, B5, B6, folate and B12 deficiencies; iodine, magnesium, calcium and zinc deficiencies; vitamin/hormone D and calcium excess at a different stage of health;  cannabinoid/phospholipid deficiency; inadequate protein and general malnutrition due to the zinc deficiency which can greatly reduce appetite at one stage and due to severe bowel mal-absorption more recently; omega 3 fatty acid/omega 6 fatty acid imbalance; and also lack of sleep/melatonin and lack of oxygen/excess toxins in the air; health requires all of the nutrients and adequate oxygen, exercise, sleep and stress coping.}

  1. Vitamin B1, thiamin deficiency, chronic, severe – Wernicke’s encephalopathy may be more of a risk for severe alcoholics and people with anorexia – severe lack of appetite or the eating disorder anorexia nervosa.
  2. Vitamin B12 deficiency – may be more of a risk for people with low stomach acidity, due to older age or chronic use of calcium type antacids; or due to genetic reasons limiting production of Intrinsic Factor; or due to a vegan diet without supplementation of vitamin B12 or inclusion of Nutritional yeast flakes in the diet.
  3. Zinc deficiency (22or copper  excess (link).
  4. Adequate but not excessive lithium may increase myelin production. (22)
  5. Adequate but not excessive iron intake is needed for production of myelin.
  6. Magnesium deficiency or poor intestinal absorption of magnesium, or lack of adequate protein and phospholipids in the diet for the body to be able to store magnesium in the normal manner within the intracellular fluid.
  7. Inadequate calcium or vitamin D can be a factor but excessive intake of either can also be a factor in cell breakdown and risk of demyelination. If taking vitamin D as a supplement the vitamin D3 form may be most bioactive and taking vitamin K2 with it may help with myelin production (22) and protect against osteoporosis. Green leafy vegetables are good sources of vitamin K.
  8. Adequate intake of cholesterol is needed as a building block for our own production of vitamin D and other steroid hormones and as a building block for myelin. (22) Pregnenolone is a steroid hormone precursor that may benefit some people when used as a supplement. It and other steroid hormones are involved in signaling increased production of myelin. Testosterone insufficiency may also negatively affect myelin production. (22)
  9. Excessive intake of free glutamate or aspartate – excitatory amino acids that are commonly used as flavoring or sweetening agents in foods or may occur naturally in fermented foods or alcoholic beverages.
  10. Adequate protein is needed to support a variety of body functions in addition to supporting magnesium levels. Uridine is a nucleotide base (part of DNA that is a combination of a type of sugar and an amino acid) that is also is involved in energy metabolism, fasting occasionally may increase our own production (more info). Insufficient amounts may negatively affect myelin production and use as a supplement may help some people. (22)
  11. Insufficient calories to provide the body enough glucose to support mitochondrial health. They can use protein or fats for energy but it shifts the metabolism more towards oxidative stress.
  12. Occasional fasting and/or a low carbohydrate diet may help promote autophagy due to increased use of ketones for energy (22) but may cause health problems due to excess oxidative stress or an increased burden of nitrogen waste removal for the kidneys when followed long term.
  13. Lack of antioxidants due to lack of Nrf2 within the body to promote our own production of antioxidants internally; and/or lack of antioxidants within the diet, including vitamin C, (22), would decrease our ability to detoxify the reactive oxidative chemicals produced during normal metabolism or which are produced at increased rates when protein or fats are being used for energy instead of glucose.
  14. Use of the herb ashwagandha or Gingko biloba (22) may help protect against oxidative stress and protect against demyelination by promoting Nrf2. (ashwagandha & Nrf2) (an overview of Nrf2 metabolism, its potential benefits for conditions such as Multiple sclerosis, and Gingko biloba and pomegranate are mentioned as promoters of Nrf2: nutricology/newsletter, see first article) (other Nrf2 promoting phytonutrients/foods and menu ideas: G10: Nrf2 Promoting Foods.) Flavonoids are one of the groups of phytonutrients that helps promote Nrf2; and also may help protect myelin production. (22) Medicinal mushrooms, including Hericium Erinaceus, Lion’s Mane Mushroom,(22), may also help protect myelin production and prevent breakdown by reducing oxidative stress (link) and promoting Nrf2. (link)
  15. Having a healthy balance of omega 3 fatty acids and omega 6 fatty acids in the diet helps reduce risk of inflammation/oxidative stress and also helps us build healthy membranes which are necessary to control flow of minerals and other chemicals from the exterior to interior of cells and organelles such as the mitochondria.
  16. Inadequate iodine for healthy thyroid hormone production, (22); may be a combined problem of excess presence of bromide, fluoride and perchlorate in the diet or environment.
  17. Lack of oxygen due to poor air quality, or smoking, or health problems causing inadequate breathing function. Emotional or physical stress may also increase the need for oxygen or increase the tendency to hold our breath; Take ten deep breaths and think before you speak is good advice for any emotionally stressful situation because oxygen is needed to think rationally and we tend to hold our breath when we are upset.
  18. Avoid extreme physical and emotional stress.
  19. Avoid toxins.
  20. Get adequate sleep at night, and a brief nap during the day may be beneficial for some people. Melatonin helps promote myelin production and inadequate sleep and having lights on at night can disrupt our production of melatonin. (22)
  21. Adequate exercise (22) and stretching regularly helps move nutrients throughout the body and remove toxins in the lymphatic fluid for further detoxification and eventual removal from the body.
  22. Wear a helmet for any activity that may cause head trauma and avoid sports which may cause frequent closed head trauma and especially when helmets are not used (sorry soccer, football, hockey, (link), and boxing fans).
  23. Adequate phospholipid and other phosphonutrients or cannabinoids may be necessary to include from external sources if genetic differences or other health problems or age interferes with the body’s internal production capability. Dark cocoa products, cardamom powder, pomegranate and pumpkin seeds are a few legal dietary sources.
  24. Use of ibuprofen and/or ginger (approximately 1/2 teaspoon per day) may help prevent breakdown of our body’s supply of cannabinoids, breakdown of which may then lead to increased breakdown of cells and may then lead to increased degeneration of myelin.
  25. Lack of any B vitamins or genetic differences in the ability to remethylate folate and vitamin B12 may disrupt the ability of mitochondria to generate usable energy from glucose or proteins and fats, and may reduce production of myelin. (22) Inositol and choline may be particularly important for myelin production. They are considered to be in the B vitamin group but was discovered more recently than the numbered series of B vitamins. (22)
  26. Low Level Laser Therapy – I am not familiar with this, see #10: (22), but I have read elsewhere that certain types of light can stimulate activity levels. (Haier)
  27. Practice, practice, practice – new things. (22Myelin is produced in response to learning [45] so remaining mentally stimulated with new experiences and learning new topics or techniques keeps signalling the body to produce myelin. 
  28. Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, (BDNF), the brain’s growth factor, may help increase production of myelin by increasing production of brain cells, which include oligodendrocytes. (22) Ways to promote BDNF (link, from within 22) fortunately overlap with the strategies for protecting against demyelination already mentioned above or included in the list of Nrf2 promoting foods.
  29. Reducing exposure to electromagnetic fields (EMF) – energy leakage from laptops, smartphones, WiFi, televisions, and other strong sources of electicity may help protect against myelin degeneration. (22)

References and more details for some of this information were included in the last two posts:

  • Good News/Bad News about Multiple sclerosis Research (7/26/2018)
  • Demyelination, continued. (7/28/2018)

/Disclosure: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes./