Tag Archives: phospholipid

Ibuprofen may reduce pain and inflammation due to it helping prevent breakdown of cannabinoids within the body

In a recent post I mentioned that the over-the-counter medication ibuprofen might be helpful for people who are trying to withdraw from the prescription medication olanzapine/Zyprexa (TM) because ibuprofen also helps prevent the breakdown of cannabinoids within the body but without affecting mental health symptoms. I didn’t have the citation about ibuprofen handy but have since found it.

The post mentioning ibuprofen was the third in a series about the prescription medication olanzapine/Zyprexa (TM):

  1. “Quit stalling,” is also a handy phrase; or Olanzapine may be dangerous to individuals and others, ,
  2. Zyprexa, $4.8 billion in prescription sales in 2007, and diabetes may also become a side effect, ,
  3. So, “we have nothing to fear but fear itself,” psychiatrists and their prescription pads, an unhealthy microbiome, and the occasional suicide bomber, . This is the post that mentions ibuprofen.

Excerpts from p83 and 82, Editors, Emmanuel S. Onaivi, Takayuki Sugiura, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Endocannabinoids: The Brain and Body’s Marijuana and Beyond, (Taylor & Francis Group, 2006, Florida), pages 82 and 83 are from Chapter 3, by: E.S. Onaivi, H. Ishiguro, P. W. Zhang, Z. Lin, B. E. Akinshola, C. M. Leanoard, S. S. Chirwa, J. Gong, and G. R. Uhl, Chapter 3, Endocannabinoid Receptor Genetics and Marijuana Use.

A note before typing the excerpt about ibuprofen: Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is a primary enzyme for breaking down cannabinoids whether they are from internally produced (endogenous) sources or from external foods or other substances such as medical marijuana or the prescription medication for Multiple sclerosis called Sativex (TM).

“In addition to PMSF, numerous compounds have been identified that block FAAH reversibly and irreversibly. Among these is ibuprofen, which is an active inhibitor, but not other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents (NSAID) such as naproxen.” [Onaivi, et al., 2006, p83]

The paragraph doesn’t explain what PMSF is but according to the search engine it is likely to be a serine protease inhibitor used in biochemistry to “prepare cell lysates” — which means to split cells open by causing their membranes to breakdown. “phenylmethane sulfonyl fluoride or phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF),” [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PMSF] [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lysis]

Cannabinoids are not only messenger chemicals that can trigger actions within the body, they are also building blocks for strong and flexible membranes. Cannabinoids are released from the membranes as needed  individually rather than being stored in bulk and released in batches the way brain neurotransmitters are stored.

The paragraph actually started on page 82 and explains that FAAH is a membrane-associated serine hydrolase found primarily in brain and liver. And research with rat brain activity has shown that the enzyme is most prevalent in areas that also have many CB1, Cannabinoid Receptors type 1:

“The currently known endocannabinoids, derived from membrane phospholipids that contain arachidonate (Mecholam et al., 1998) are metabolized by FAAH (Deutsch and Chin, 1993), which is a membrane-associated serine hydrolase enriched in brain and liver. There is an overlap of the distribution of FAAH and its activity in the rat brain with the expression of CB1, which has led to the suggestion that FAAH is probably the major enzyme in the brain responsible for inactivation of fatty acid amides (Elphick and Egertova, 2001). This, in the human brain the distribution of CB1R and the FAAH enzyme frequently overlap in many structures.” [Onaivi et al., 2006, p82]

Excerpts from p83 and 82, Editors, Emmanuel S. Onaivi, Takayuki Sugiura, Vincenzo Di Marzo, Endocannabinoids: The Brain and Body’s Marijuana and Beyond, (Taylor & Francis Group, 2006, Florida), pages 82 and 83 are from Chapter 3, by: E.S. Onaivi, H. Ishiguro, P. W. Zhang, Z. Lin, B. E. Akinshola, C. M. Leanoard, S. S. Chirwa, J. Gong, and G. R. Uhl, Chapter 3, Endocannabinoid Receptor Genetics and Marijuana Use.

Now I just have to re-trace my steps to find the information about olanzapine and anandamide because I’m not sure where that citation was from. The anti-psychotic activity of the drug is believed to be due to it affecting dopamine and serotonin levels within the brain. [https://www.pharmgkb.org/chemical/PA450688#tabview=tab3&subtab=31]

My research into how olanzapine worked was a while ago. Wikipedia also just mentions the dopamine and serotonin affects but also includes more information about the Eli Lilly company’s lawsuits. The company settled 8000 lawsuits with $700 million in 2006. They are also stated to have agreed to pay $500 million more to settle 18000 other lawsuits in 2007 but that factoid says [citation needed]. More recently in 2009 the company plead guilty to a misdemeanor charge regarding marketing Zyprexa for off-label use and agreed to pay $1.4 billion. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Olanzapine]

I thought the mechanism involved inhibiting the enzyme that breaks down cannabinoids but obviously I need to search a little harder or this series of posts about olanzapine/Zyprexa (TM) will be based on [citation needed]. Yeah, I am saved by the search engine combined with perseverance with assorted search terms:

Cannabinoids may be responsible for weight gain associated with schizophrenia,” February 5, 2015,  “After the treatment, [16 weeks on olanzapine] the researchers observed hyperactivation in the left amygdala (limbic region) in, relative to a control group of healthy subjects. These brain changes were associated with increased levels of glucose, triglycerides and anandamide,” [http://medicalxpress.com/news/2015-02-cannabinoids-responsible-weight-gain-schizophrenia.html]

A different article about the same research group’s findings:

“Average blood oxygenation level-dependent signals revealed that limbic brain regions in the left amygdala and right insula became hyperactive to appetizing rather than neutral images after olanzapine treatment, and increases in activity were significantly higher than in control participants.”

“These brain changes were associated with increased levels of glucose, triglycerides, and anadamide, the primary cannabinoid neurotransmitter, binding to the cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptor.”

— from the article by Liam Davenport on Medscape.com, “Antipsychotic-Related Weight Gain Explained?,” February 12, 2015, [http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/839713]

/Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes./

Omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids aren’t just fats, they can activate cell receptors

Me 5:41am:

I didn’t know the history of omega 3 recommendations. Thanks for sharing.  The balance of omega 3 to omega 6 may be part of the issue – not just take more of one thing (omega 3 fatty acids) but also have less of the other thing (omega 6 fatty acids).

From (2002):
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12442909

“Excessive amounts of omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and a very high omega-6/omega-3 ratio, as is found in today’s Western diets, promote the pathogenesis of many diseases, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, and inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, whereas increased levels of omega-3 PUFA (a low omega-6/omega-3 ratio) exert supressive effects. In the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, a ratio of 4/1 was associated with a 70% decrease in total mortality. A ratio of 2.5/1 reduced rectal cell proliferation in patients with colorectal cancer, whereas a ratio of 4/1 with the same amount of omega-3 PUFA had no effect. The lower omega-6/omega-3 ratio in women with breast cancer was associated with decreased risk. A ratio of 2-3/1 suppressed inflammation in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and a ratio of 5/1 had a beneficial effect on patients with asthma, whereas a ratio of 10/1 had adverse consequences. These studies indicate that the optimal ratio may vary with the disease under consideration. This is consistent with the fact that chronic diseases are multigenic and multifactorial”

~~~~
 A response, 10:41am:
But is omega-6 itself a problem, or is it simply an measurable indicator that an individual has a high-fat diet?    Dietary science seems to suffer from ‘observability bias’; that is, being unable to observe actual chemical process in the body from consumption through mortality, researchers are forced to wring as much causality (and as many conclusions) as possible from a few metrics, without experimental confirmation of the actual biochemistry.
 ~~~~~~
Me 1:42pm:

Some of the omega-3 fatty acids can activate some cell receptors that have powerful anti-inflammatory effects. “Stimulation of GPR120 by DHA has been shown to inhibit both the TLR2/3/4 and TNF-a proinflammatory cascades.”  Any chemical that can act as a signaling device may also have risks if too much is consumed.  (TNF-a = Tumor Necrosis Factor – alpha – an important signal to tell white blood cells to kill infected or damaged cells.)http://www.themedicalbiochemistrypage.org/omegafats.php

I’m still reading re the omega 6 question.

The next paragraph reviews their role – fatty acids are building blocks of the membranes. Inflammatory signals can cause cell membrane breakdown which releases the omega 6 fatty acid ALA and leads to production of eicosanoids – which are also powerful messenger chemicals.

And part of the reason research is limited may be because the ALA and conversion to eicosanoids all has to do with endogenous cannabinoid system — and with reefer madness and the paper industry and the Marijuana Tax Act of 1937 causing decreased availability and increased illegality of marijuana.  Interestingly the physicians at the time didn’t like the law:

“The American Medical Association (AMA) opposed the act because the tax was imposed on physicians prescribing cannabis, retail pharmacists selling cannabis, and medical cannabis cultivation and manufacturing; instead of enacting the Marijuana Tax Act the AMA proposed cannabis be added to the Harrison Narcotics Tax Act.[34]”

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legal_history_of_cannabis_in_the_United_States

Me 1:59pm:
The ratio of omega 3 to omega 6 fatty acids is important because they compete with each other for use as building blocks of the membranes. So too much of one or the other might leave the membranes weaker or less flexible or might be causing more of one type of signaling messenger chemical to be produced at the expense of other types of signalling chemicals. btw that article doesn’t mention the endogenous cannabinoid link – I could give you links for that if you’re interested.
~~~~~~
 Response 2:12pm:
I fear you’ve lost me with the cannabis stuff…
 ~~~~~
Me  2:21pm:
The ALA omega 6 fatty acid, arachidonic acid, is actually part of two endogenous cannabinoids:  2-arachidonoylglycerol ether (noladin ether), N-arachidonoyl dopamine (NADA).
The endogenous cannabinoids are stored in the membranes and can be released by different inflammatory signals which can include having elevated intracellular levels of calcium.  Magnesium is an electrically active ion found in higher concentration within the cell while calcium is the electrically active ion found in higher concentration in blood plasma. After release the parts of the endogenous cannabinoid break apart so the arachidonic acid becomes a free fatty acid again.Endogenous cannabinoids are phospholipids which is chemically very special. They have a fatty acid end that likes to dissolve in oil and a phospho- end which likes to dissolve in water which makes them very useful for building membranes within a watery and oily environment.This is a continuing ed course and has lots of info:
http://www.netce.com/coursecontent.php?courseid=1129

 ~~~~~~~
Response 2:25pm:
Are we still talking about people not living longer when they take Omega-3 supplements,
~~~~~
Me 2:34pm:

Cannabis is not a bad plant or substance. Cannabinoids are in every cell of our body. They are in breastmilk. Babies don’t grow well and have reduced appetites when the mother is lacking endogenous cannabinoids. They are in pine trees,, nutmeg, rosemary, buckwheat, chocolate and in most life forms except insects. So hemp rope and paper was cheap in the 1930s and a paper industry executive managed to stigmatize cannabis as something that only those jazz musicians who steal your wife would use. (paraphrased)

Plastic nylon rope was also a new invention of the time – hemp and cannabis eventually were made illegal. But you can’t legislate physiology to just be something that it is not –  omega 6 fatty acids are used in the internal production (endogenous) of cannabinoids. People who are healthy, well nourished and without genetic defects in the endogenous cannabinoid system can make the chemicals themselves but the building blocks are becoming more rare in our food supply as the fertility of soil is depleted.

 Me 2:37pm:
The tl:dr = omega 6 fatty acids are part of cannabis and cannabinoids so limiting research in the cannabinoid system is also limiting research into the function and ideal ratio of omega 6 and omega 3 fatty acids.
Me 2:47pm:
And back to the article you linked to – the ideal ratio of omega 6/omega 3  to consume in the diet each day must be different for the Inuit than for other populations and is also likely a little different for different types of diseases based on one of the links I quoted.
 Me 2:49pm:
So why not call it buckwheat stuff or pine tree stuff or sea squirt stuff — or even better — human stuff?
~~~~~
Response 3:03pm:
I’m not sure I’m following.  Are you saying that because fish oil is useless, marijuana is useless?
~~~~~~
Me 3:09pm:
(but not in response to  the previous response – I had missed seeing it – this was just following up from my series of short comments following the last response. – My yes was not to that response but was saying yes to the last response – this all must have been confusing in many ways .):
Yes, all of that was talking about why people might not live longer if they take large quantities of omega 3 fatty acids when they are genetically not related to the Inuit.  Omega 3 and omega 6 can both be powerful signaling chemicals not just dietary fats. Limiting research in the endogenous cannabinoid system limited research throughout the body and throughout all areas of physiology because the cannabinoid receptors, cannabinoids, and eicosanoids do so many things for us – and for mosquitoes too.
Me 3:21pm:

From an evolutionary perspective – most native diets wouldn’t have supplied much omega 3 or omega 6. The Inuit diet would have had a lot of omega 3 from the fish and little omega 6. Other native diets wouldn’t have had a lot of omega 6 either because it is concentrated in our modern vegetable oils,.  A native diet would get it from eating sunflower seeds but that would take a lot of growing, harvesting, and shelling before you could consume a medicinal quantity of omega 6 from sunflower kernels.

A take home point might be to continue consuming some omega 3 and some omega 6 without overdoing either one — and more research is needed  😉

~~~~~
Response 3:29pm:
 I dunno…the way I’m reading it is, dietary researchers are biased towards finding dietary reasons for things that may have nothing to do with diet, and then dietary marketers take that misunderstanding and spin it into sales of the supplement du jour.
    I expect we’ll have a legalization of marijuana soon, and a decade or so of cannabis as miracle drug, and then someone will notice that it really makes no difference, and we’ll move on to mayfly extract or some such thing.
~~~~~~
Me 4:20pm:

I agree with you  that many supplement sales companies will push whatever supplement they can in whatever way they can — but so do pharmaceutical companies and our bodies actually are made up of cannabinoids, omega 3 and omega 6 fatty acids, and we are not made up of patent pharmaceuticals.

— Everything has to do with diet because we are actually made out of what we eat, drink, and breathe. Babies don’t eat or grow well and fail to thrive when their mother’s milk is deficient in cannabinoids. Cannabinoids are always going to make a difference in health because they make up our cell walls and our membranes and act as messenger chemicals. Non-euphoric strains have been developed and are being used with elderly patients in nursing homes in Israel.

– Genetic defects or malnutrition or older age and ill health may all limit our bodies ability to make the cannabinoids internally and so those individuals would need to consume an external source everyday for the rest of their lives in order to supply their bodies with the essential membrane building blocks. Research suggests we need about 600 mg per day which would be roughly equivalent to 1/8 ounce per day (which is a lot to consume per day and is expensive).

No one dietary supplement or extract is likely to be a cure-all by itself because the nutrients usually work together as teams. Research science got too thrilled by magic bullet medicines and seems to think nutrients also act by themselves — possibly because a few nutrients were discovered due to population wide nutrient deficiencies. – scurvy, pellegra, beri beri, and rickets.

It’s frustrating to me that physiology research and health care got derailed by the paper and rope industries.

Cannabinoids are not a fad supplement, They are always going to be essential for the health of humans, and for most of the rest of the life forms on our planet.

Disclosure: I am a dietitian and medical marijuana patient and have had chronic health issues since infancy (bottle-fed) which I believe may be related to genetic defects in my cannabinoid receptor system. An external source helps reduce my autoimmune thyroid disease symptoms and reduces symptoms of numbness in my fingers and toes. The chronic nerve degeneration disease ALS has a 19% comorbidity rate with the type of autoimmune disease I have – if medical marijuana can help prevent my becoming paralyzed than that seems like a good thing to me.

Sorry for the lengthy comments – the negative view of cannabis as only an addiction is so frustrating too me. Is starving infants really better than providing the body with all of the essential building blocks that it needs? If cannabinoids are naturally found in breast milk than we need to be adding them to infant formula and to the formula used for tube feeding paralyzed adults and others who can’t consume solid foods.

You can look forward to the mayfly extract,  😉 I’ll stick with rosemary, buckwheat and other natural sources of cannabinoids.

~~~~
Response 4:35pm:
  I’m not sure that individual practitioners in the dietary field are necessarily better than big drug companies; though; both seem to monetize the assumption that evolution has left the human body unable to meet its own dietary needs.

~~~~

Me 4:58pm:
The Linus Pauling Institute has very thorough information about nutrient needs and interactions and food sources for the nutrients. +Stephen L
http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/

or the DASH diet has been found effective and is fairly easy to follow.
http://www.dashdietoregon.org/why

If an individual dietary practitioner is pushing only supplements on you without mentioning any foods than find a different dietary practitioner would be my recommendation for you. Good ones would know that fiber and other phytochemicals in whole foods are also very beneficial and wouldn’t be available in a pill. And the supplemental fiber that is commonly used isn’t as good for the body as the many varieties that are found in produce naturally.

Funding is the problem – research is expensive and nutrients can’t be patented and sold at a huge profit.

Me 6:14pm:

I was looking through the extremely long  comments and saw that I missed one of your comments – no I was not saying that because omega 3 fatty acids haven’t proven to prevent heart attacks as hoped that cannabis is also going to be useless – sorry my responses must have been confusing because they had nothing to do with that comment – I only just saw it. I was saying that the two chemicals are related/work together so limiting research in one area, cannabinoids, may have limited research advances being made with the other, omega 3/omega 6 fatty acids and the importance of having them in balance in moderate amounts.

— vegetable oil = fried food, chips, etc – things we tend to eat to much of. So salmon or sardines a couple times per week is still probably healthy amount of omega 3 and eating moderate amounts of fried foods and chips would help keep omega 6 intake more in balance with the omega 3.

The comments are from this post.
““““
Eicosanoids were also a Fringe Topic: Eicosanoids are made from eCBs from the membrane
/Disclosure: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes./

Membrane Building Foods

I didn’t finish this list of foods rich in phospholipids, so I’m starting again at the top of the food chain with human milk. It contains more phospholipids than cow milk and has almost as much of the endogenous cannabinoid (eCB) precursor PE as it has PC, more commonly known as lecithin.
Abbreviations
PC – Phosphatidylcholine     PE – Phosphatidylethanolamine – part of Anandamide (AEA) an eCB
PS – Phosphatidylserine       PI – Phosphatidylinositol

Total Lipids (g/100 g)
Total Phos Lipids  (mg/100gr)
 PC
 PE
 PS
 PI
 SPH
Human Milk
3.800
60
17
15
Data NA
Data NA
Data NA
Whole milk
.
Cow
3.660
34
12
10
1
2
9
Sheep
7.000
51
15
18
2
2
15
Buffalo
6.890
29
8
8
1
1
10
Tot. L.
 Tot. Ph L.
 PC
 PE
 PS
 PI
 SPH

Organ and muscle and other tissues that have been tested across animal species are relatively similar in content. Note the brain is actually highest in the Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE -1948):

Beef Brain
12.1
5,433
1,307
1,948
871
242
944
Pork Organ:
PC
PE
PS
PI
SPH
Kidney
2.90
2,340
842
398
164
70
328
Liver
3.70
2,901
1,688
618
38
209
131
Lung
3.70
1,590
795
191
127
80
191
Spleen
2.45
1,240
409
174
161
25
236

The tables of data are not really meant to be a menu of food ideas itself. It is a dietitian type tool for more easily comparing the types of foods. There are more tables farther down the page. Yesterday’s list was a partial list of the plant foods and today’s focus starts with animal products. Organs and plant parts that are more membrane rich also deliver those building blocks in the food or concentrated supplement (bovine thyroid or adrenal extracts are available on the supplement market and may be helpful building blocks or may be contaminated byproducts full of contaminants – check the company and the source . Organ meats are concentrated in nutrients and toxins because they are also part of the detoxification process for the body (liver and kidney and spleen are detoxifiers, gizzard is a bird/reptile stomach.)

From (Weihrauch et al, 1983 The Phospholipid Content of Food) Excerpt [1]:

Data on organ meats are limited. Rouser et al. (29) determined the phospholipid distribution in human, bovine, mouse and frog liver, kidney and spleen. They reported among vertebrates little or no species variability of the phospholipid class distribution of organs and most subcellular particulates. The apparent connection between phospholipid function and phospholipid content and distribution in similar foods and tissues seems to be supported by the similarity of the respective data for the various milks, the eggs from various avian species, the livers of pork, chicken and turkey, the various beef muscles, the white (breast) and dark (thigh) meats of poultry, and the hearts and gizzards of poultry. Among animal tissues, beef brain contains the highest amount of phospholipids.”
*** We are what we eat. Looking at the average content of a type of organ can demonstrate the critical need that nutrient might play in a diseased condition of that organ. The beef brain is very rich in phospholipids and the endogenous cannabinoid building block, PE, and sphingomyelin (SPH) which suggests to me that myelin sheath problems in multiple sclerosis may have to do with lack of nutrients. Chronic degenerative disease happens slowly – breaking down is the same thing as not rebuilding as needed. Got to put the shingles back on after a wind storm or water leaks in and makes a worse mess.

Prevention of further damage and repair of damage might be possible with an increase in phospholipid foods. Bonus side effects would include pain killing, immune system strength, brain cell growth and prevention of stroke damage – and anticancer benefits to boot.

Excerpt [1]:

“Eggs, organ meats lean meats, fish, shellfish, cereal grains and oilseeds are good sources of phospholipids, especially the choline phospholipids. Leafy vegetables, fruits and tubers contain very low amounts of phospholipids.  (***yesterday’s list had some herbal and food sources not listed on the following charts)

More research is needed on the phospholipids in animal products such as beef, pork, lamb and fish. The effect of breed, age, sex, season and feeding habits need to be examined. More research is also needed on nuts, oilseeds, fruits and vegetables. Cultivar, geographical location and growing season may be some variables that should be examined.”

***I think we are still waiting. This article is fairly heavily cited by other authors and cost $34.95  – research isn’t cheap either.As a breast feeding educator and with five years personal experience, I am very comfortable in reporting that there is and is supposed to be wide variation in the lipid content in human milk – extensively researched. Fat content and type is supposed to vary with age and stage of the infant – premature infant milk is richest in fats, then newborn milk, and weanling milk has the lowest fat content. The types of essential fats in the mother’s diet will largely be what shows up in the milk for the baby. Malnourished women were found to have less of the endogenous cannabinoid content which can reduce the infant’s suckling and growth rates. Gently washing and massaging the infant may replicate the grooming/licking that stimulates the infant’s own production of eCBs. {the Endo textbook, Onaivi, et al, 2006}

A quote from a chapter; “Targeting the Cannabinoid System to Produce Analgesia” (Sager et al, 2009):

“In conclusion, the analgesic effects of cannabinoid-based medicines acting at CB1 receptors are well described, but limited by adverse side-effect profiles. The identification of alternative cannabinoid entities, such as the CB2 receptor and enzymes engaged in the catabolism of eCBs, offers further opportunity for the development of novel cannabinoid based analgesics with an improved side effect profile.” [3]

Let me give you a subtext interpretation – blocking CB1 didn’t work so let’s try to mess around with the CB2 system instead.

Rimonabant, a CB1 inhibitor, was recently ramping up for a big release when suicides and depression became a significant side effect. It is still for sale in countries besides the US. Rimonabant blocks – stops – deactivates the CB1 receptors throughout the body. Every cell has some, the brain is just the richest source. So the adverse side effect that was most debilitating was the suicides not euphoria from inhaling a little too much.

The CB1 receptors help control all four main brain neurotransmitters. So this patentable magic bullet was designed to promote weight loss because it was noticed that mice whose CB1 receptors were blocked got skinny. Yes, appetite can be decreased with marijuana as well as increased depending on whether a lot or a little of the CBs and which CBs interact with the receptors. The psychoactive CB that we all hear about the dangers of (mythic dangers largely) is delta-9 THC and it is the only euphoric/psychoactive one. The others are medicinal too. If pain killing without “adverse side effects” was the primary goal then why wouldn’t we simply extract or synthesize the pain killing CBDs that aren’t psychoactive and give them to patients? – $$$$$

We can’t simply extract plant parts without being able to charge extra for the little chemical tags that make each new rendition of a drug “unique” and ownable and profitable. It is too bad that health has become a commodity (dwindling).

We already know how to target the cannabinoid system to produce analgesia (pain killing) – just eat it or heat it. And now we know a few more foods to eat (besides special brownies).

The research thrust in science seems to be to find patentable magic bullet medications that go to a target and do one wonder action – but the body doesn’t really work that way. Also turns out that it would be hard to build a myelin sheath for a nerve cell with an aspirin or an opioid medication. Ibuprofen might help though, one of the ways it helps kill pain is to reduce breakdown of endogenous cannabinoids (now I know why it was always my favorite painkiller). This article isn’t where I read that – (Onaivi et al, 2006), however the (Sagar et al) article begins with the point that slowing the breakdown of eCBs also produces analgesic effects and inhibiting enzymes that metabolize them is a possible drug approach being considered.

I am instead considering buckwheat noodles and Shitake mushroom Tempura from a local Japanese take out restaurant or making corn bread and shredded barbecue turkey (a great way to use up the dark meat – unfortunately the turkey is still frozen).

In my post, Aftermath’s Fruit and Nut Course, I retold the vitamin D story instead of getting straight to the point that if for any reason the intracellular levels of calcium or glutamates increases too high then the membrane areas rich in endogenous cannabinoids will release them in order to be ready for use as messengers or as building blocks. We don’t need to know why the intracellular level of calcium or glutamates got elevated – the research exists that calcium or glutamates  are themselves powerful messengers within the cell fluid – they don’t belong there under normal conditions. Usually the membrane carefully controls the entry of calcium and free amino acids – large molecule compared to a single ion of calcium. The entry is controlled by channel shaped proteins in the membrane. The channels are normally powered by magnesium and controlled by eCBs and other messenger chemicals. What isn’t normal to the body are calcium channel blocker drugs. I personally prefer to think of food as maintenance medicine and magnesium as nature’s number one calcium channel blocker.

Egg yolks (PC source) and saturated fats got a bad reputation (usually also good source of arachidonic acid) and so did hemp/marijuana. Moderation is the key and pharmaceutical magic bullets aren’t moderate in price or side effect. Healthy foods come bundled with healthy side effects, help yourself to seconds.

However caution with seconds on liver and organ meats. They could deliver too much active vitamin A and D. Once a month serving of liver can deliver a boost of enzyme building blocks as well as the phospholipids. Any meat is best to think of as 1/4 of the plate, about the size of a deck of playing cards or 3-4 oz like a small chicken breast. Add some root vegetables (1/2-1 cup) and a green vegetable (1-2 cups) and a 1/2 cup of grain with a dash of good fats in the form of a few tablespoons of nuts or seeds or a tsp of oil. A fruit serving makes a good snack for later and water or herbal tea is always a good beverage for meals – easy on the digestive system.

Organic or home grown/small farm grown may have more nutrient diversity because the soil is likely to have more variety and higher amounts of trace minerals. A plant species may have special abilities to absorb a nutrient better than other plants but if the nutrient isn’t in the soil to gather then the food is going to be less nutritious. If our animals are fed those less nutritious plant foods then the animal is going to also have less nutrient building blocks. Both the plant and animal kingdoms are having mass die-offs due to infection. We are losing our trees to disease as well as paper towels.

Mitigation of construction zones is similar to chronic degeneration – the erosion control on the hillside prevents the sand from washing away to dirty the water below and leave the underlying roots unprotected. Someone had to walk miles and miles with supplies and shovels and put in that silt fence to shore up the exposed top soil. Without membranes to protect our underlying roots, all our nutrients can wash away, messing up our kidneys and leaving us open to invasive species eager to rush in and live off the exposed nutrients.

Enjoy some eggs  and potatoes again – it’s the bacon or sausage that’s really a treat food – as in don’t treat yourself that way too often – you don’t deserve the salt and preservatives. A sprinkle of sunflower seeds might be good for a little crunch and salt or toasted sesame seeds with seaweed flakes is a Japanese condiment loaded with nutrients (seemed slightly fishy in flavor to me, I couldn’t quite get used to it).

*** These data tables are a reference – a starting point.  I will be adding menu ideas and recipes using foods chosen for phospholipid content but also magnesium, B vitamins and other trace nutrients and I will be adding a list of foods that are rich in the special starches the sugars that aren’t glucose or fructose (mannose, fucose, glucosamine, xylose or some examples).

Eggs, wh
Total Ph L
PC
PE
SPH
Chicken
11.150
3,490
2,687
578
82
13.770
3,656
2,766
605
90
Goose
13.270
3,318
2,455
624
100
Quail
11.090
3,638
2,923
382
107
Turkey
11.880
3,540
2,885
457
74
Egg, chicken
Total Phos. Lip.
PC
PE
PS
PI
SPH
White
0.015
2.8
1.2
Tr
0.9
Yolk
31.800
10,306
6,771
1,917
64
486
Chicken
Tot. L. (g/100 g food)
Tot. Ph L
PC
PE
PS
PI
SPH
Thigh
3.26
1,386
662
352
186
Tr
101
Breast
1.12
782
391
187
100
Tr
56
Skin
13.73
906
316
247
82
Tr
124
Gizzard
2.54
1,153
353
368
102
Tr
165
Heart
3.20
1,718
675
509
227
Tr
195
Liver
5.60
2,542
1,120
829
146
Tr
291
Turkey
PS/PI
Thigh
2.48
526
282
137
34
53
Breast
0.73
418
231
92
33
43
Gizzard
1.35
1,000
422
465
113
Heart
2.93
2,125
1,117
646
362
Liver
6.02
2,875
1,655
818
402
Total Lipids (g/100 g food)
Total Phos.lip.
PC
PE
PS
PI
SPH
Beef muscle, L. dorsi
PC + LPC
PS + PA + CL
fattened
12.4
690
340
124
96
38
63
lean
1.7
597
260
106
48
37
99
Tot. L.
Tot. PhL
PC
PE
PS
PI
SPH
Calf, L. dorsi
1.13
853
318
197
95
49
60
Pork, L. dorsi
2.58
596
304
167
57  PS/PI
34
Rabbit Skeletal muscle
2.26
510
276
122   PE +PS
20
Fish
Tot. L
Tot. Ph.L.
PC
PE
PS
PI
SPH
Abalone
1.05
695
285
222
35
35
7
Clam
1.45
532
217
16
96
129
Cod
0.59
520
359
99
26
Crab,frw
2.52
696
362
188
14
28
28
Crab, marine
2.23
580
331
128
29
23
29
Crayfish
1.77
530
289
139
56 PI
Also
25
Eel, slt.w
18.3
1,684
596
180
264
325
Eel, fresh water
18.3
2,196
637
171
406
488
Herring, wh musc.
3.82
937
499
219
140
66
Herring, dark mus
19.61
2,584
1,384
686
360
115
Mackerel, wh musc
1.91
726
196
220
86
224
Mackerel, dark mus. Male fish
10.14
2,328
111
1,442
625
151
Mackerel, dark mus. Female
10.54
2,410
774
1,309
335
994
Octopus
0.79
618
260
185
31
24
19
Smelt
1.25
427
222
141
21
Squid, muscle
1.68
1,098
777
114
83
102
Trout, rainbow
2.1 fillet
347
231
74
15
6
6
Tuna, dorsal muscle
3.79
617
166
132
93
211
Tuna, Ventral muscle
13.9
1,938
641
503
194
153
Tuna, dark mus.
5.06
1,756
692
244
240
557
Tot. L
Tot. Ph.L.
PC
PE
PS
PI
LPE
Tot. L
Tot. Ph.L.
PC
PE
PS
PI
LPE
LPC
Barley, wh gr
3.0
506
258
45
29
8
145
Corn, wh comm. Hybrid
3.7
213
139
15
26
10
Corn Germ, amylomaize
41.6
1,077
331
153
201
10
8
Corn Starch amylomaize
0.9
187
14
161
Oats, dehulled
5.8
1,439
430
213
46
294 +LPE, +LPS
Rice, Brwn
2.1
85
29
33
3
2
Rice, Bran
17.9
365
153
148
23
tr
tr
Rye, wh gr flour
3.1
743
273
90
184
196
Rye germ
16.5
1,071
346
132
230
0
Triticale, wh gr flour
3.4
938
321
186
206
225
Wheat, wh gr, hard
2.5
1,060
164
56 +PG
64
408
Wheat starch
0.7
677
72
548

1. Weihrauch et al, 1983 The Phospholipid Content of Foods (JAOCS, vol 60, no. 12 (December 1983)

2. James Duke – Greenpharmacy.com for the herbal plants
Ethnobotanical and Phytochemical Database of medicinal plants and chemical activities

3. Devi Rani Sagar, Maulik Jhaveri, and Victoria Chapman, Targeting the Cannabinoid System to Produce Analgesia, from D. Kendall and S. Alexander 9eds.), Behavioral Neaurobiology of the Endocannabinoid System. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences 1, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-88955-7_11, @ Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009 (page 283)

4. Onaivi, E. S., Sugiura, T., Di Marzo, V., (eds)  Endocannabinoids; The Brain and Body’s Marijuana and Beyond ISBN 0-415-30008-8 (CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, 2006)

/Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes./

Feed your membranes

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~  ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~
Some membrane building foods with links to Amazon but you can look for similar items at your local market.Today’s list is of membrane building foods that are rich in phospholipids which make strong membranes that are also smart at their job of regulating what goes in or is allowed out of the cell. Some of the phospholipids can be assembled into endogenous cannabinoids and others are important for other types of membrane function. The foods were selected from searches for the individual phospholipids within Dr. Duke’s Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases created by Dr. James Duke of The Green Pharmacy [greenpharmacy.com]. (Update: That database is no longer available but the website still has other information.)

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~Beans – all of them, with cocoa bean at the top of the list (chocolate hold the sugar and milk/cream)

bean sprouts have an increased amount so soy bean and mung bean sprouts are rich sources

Nuts – not well documented on the individual basis but peanuts are very good and pine nuts are excellant so I don’t think I would be going out on a limb to say the group has got to be very good compared to apple or orange juice content (pine nut 1000 , orange juice 10, peanut 620, sunflower seed, 1092 mg/100 g food total phosholipid content)

Seeds   (note the fruits and vegetable included – the phospholipid content is in the seed)

Adlay Millet     Alfalfa seed     Cardamom (used as a spice)     Hemp     Sunflower      Flax

Cucumber Seed     Pomegranite seed      Grape seed

Grains (must be whole grain products that include the bran and germ, the richest sources – wheat has some too but more of the choline variety which isn’t directly part of the endogenous cannabinoids so wasn’t on my initial search term results. Besides we don’t really need help eating more wheat products, I would like to help give a few ideas for substitutes.):

Buckwheat      Corn     Oats      Rice      Rye     Triticale

(probably regular millet, amaranth and quinoa too but I haven’t done an individual search yet)

Fruits

Apple     Fig     Grapefruit *    Lemon *     Orange *   *pulpy juice is a source

Vegetables

Carrot     Cassava, leaf     Cucumber seed      Garlic, bulb     Green Bell Pepper     Green pea

Potato     Sweet Potato    Spinach     Shitake mushroom      Kelp,  Bladderwrack      Purslane

Musk okra

Angelica/Dong quai (an herbal supplement to me maybe it is a vegetable to some people),
Women’s blend tea bags with 40 mg Dong quai

Stinging Nettle plant on Amazon: [Amazon] and root  (also available as an herbal supplement)

Membranes do control life or death – we crawled out of the sea or womb at some point in our lives and had to take that first dry cold breath of air.

Feeding your membranes may be even smarter than I thought.

/Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes./