Tag Archives: communication

“Yes, autistic people do have feelings”; a link

According to one writer at least, “Yes, autistic people do have feelings.” Having difficulty understanding emotions can also leave a person with less skill when trying to communicate about their emotions. The linked article explains it better than I can try to re-explain, but it struck a familiar note with me.

Disclaimer: Opinions are my own and the information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes.

There is never going to be a good time to say that glyphosate is unhealthy

Business practices that are established are likely to be more difficult to change or stop than strategies that are first being introduced. And it isn’t easy to be one of the few people saying “Wait a second, there seems to be a problem.

Satire or dark humor may take a blunt look at uncomfortable reality and laugh rather than cry about the pain or feeling of futility of the situation. The Onion is a satire magazine that moved online and responds rapidly to news of the day, but sometimes with the same old story — reinforcing the feeling of futility that real world tragedy can leave: [Read more.]

Research suggests that men and women tend to communicate differently with each other and with their peers and peer groups. This tendency is discussed in the following article: [read more.] We learn from our parents and siblings but many of the lessons we learned about communication styles tend to go all the way back to the interactions and childhood games  that we played with our peers. Boys tend to play in larger groups and have a clear leader or leaders within their groups while girls tend to play in smaller groups and value working together without emphasizing any one girl as being more dominant within the group.

Observational research suggests that girls seem to value building each other up within a team while boys  seem to support having a more dominant male or small group of males that take on the decision making roles for the whole team. A group with all girls might not appreciate a girl who is more forceful about speaking up while a group with all boys might not appreciate a boy who is more forceful about speaking up if he is not within the smaller group of boys who are accepted as the leaders of the group.

There can be risks to not accepting information from people in positions of lower authority. An excerpt from the linked article is about an airplane crash that would have been easily prevented if the captain had listened more closely to his copilot’s tentative concerns about ice build up on the aircraft:

“Shortly thereafter, the plane took off, with tragic results. In other instances as well as this one, Linde observed that copilots, who are second in command, are more likely to express themselves indirectly or otherwise mitigate, or soften, their communication when they are suggesting courses of action to the pilot. In an effort to avert similar disasters, some airlines now offer training for copilots to express themselves in more assertive ways.”

“This solution seems self-evidently appropriate to most Americans. But when I assigned Linde’s article in a graduate seminar I taught, a Japanese student pointed out that it would be just as effective to train pilots to pick up on hints. This approach reflects assumptions about communication that typify Japanese culture, which places great value on the ability of people to understand one another without putting everything into words. Either directness or indirectness can be a successful means of communication as long as the linguistic style is understood by the participants.” [https://hbr.org/1995/09/the-power-of-talk-who-gets-heard-and-why]

So is our society better off when women and men in positions of lower authority are expected to hint or to suggest and cajole regarding issues they consider dangerous? Or would our society be better off if we had more of an open suggestion box where anyone could speak up and say “Danger, Will Robinson,” (to quote a robot from “Lost in Space,” wikiquote)?

So our food supply is just fine and our health care system is just fine, and vaccinations are guaranteed to be safe by our government and if there are any adverse reactions than our government will be there for individuals who apply for help (except for veterans of the Gulf War who have symptoms of the “emotional disorder” Gulf War Syndrome – a syndrome that has only occurred in American soldiers who in the early 1990s received an experimental series of vaccinations intended to protect against anthrax).

The rapidly changing rates of obesity and autism and Alzheimer’s Disease in modern society all have suggested to me for a while that something in the environment changed because the biology of a whole group doesn’t change that rapidly. Genetic adaptation as suggested by theories about evolution can occasionally have sudden changes show up in a population but more typically changes in biology are small and occur over many generations.

Around 1985 increasing rates and severity of chronic health issues started to escalate in the U.S.. The accepted reason has been attributed to people eating too much and exercising too little. So if you are one of those people who has been frustrated by stubborn health issues that don’t seem to respond to your dedicated attempts to “eat healthier and exercise more” than you may to change your definition of what eating healthier means. If avoiding glyphosate is something you’re interested or sick enough to be willing to try then avoiding the crops that use a lot of glysophate might help with weight loss by increasing your exercise too. Avoiding “corn, soy, sugar beets, canola oil, and cottonseed oil, as well as wheat and sugar cane” is enough of a challenge that your level of exercise is also likely to increase due to spending more time cooking whole foods and cleaning up afterwards. [http://www.westonaprice.org/health-topics/roundup-the-nontoxic-chemical-that-may-be-destroying-our-health/]

That kind of dietary change is kind of unreasonable to expect from anyone — unless they are already so sick that they are willing to try anything to feel better. Having been in that position myself though, and having helped others resolve their health issues with simple dietary changes, I have continued to share information that I’ve found helpful and strategies that I’ve found helpful.

Changing the safety rating of some of the genetically modified crops and herbicides and pesticides that are in common usage seems like it would be easier for individuals but before a problem can be solved it has to be recognized as a problem and currently our U.S. food supply is considered safe and we as a group seem to be considered unhealthy due to our own habits and possibly our emotions.

I love avoiding most of the food supply and it makes me emotionally feel very safe to enter grocery stores or to drive near agricultural fields where herbicides and pesticides might have been sprayed — not really. If you like traditional marriage and traditional genders then caring about traditional food supplies and traditional agricultural methods would probably be a good idea. Infertility is increasing along with obesity, autism and Alzheimer’s Disease so maybe we won’t have to worry about chronic health issues in children if we just stop having as many children — or maybe we’ll have a few generations with fewer children who have more severe health issues before we have to be concerned about infertility problems being severe enough to lead to no more new children being born at all.

Glysophate has been associated with male infertility and erectile dysfunction — “Danger Will Robinson,” 60-80 million couples are now having difficulties with fertility: [http://naturalsociety.com/new-study-pesticides-a-major-cause-of-infertility-male-erectile-dysfunction/]

So if you are a tourist interested in visiting the U.S. try not to worry too much about chronic health issues associated with our food supply, as a short term use may not immediately cause long term health issues – animal studies on short term use of glysophate suggested that it is safe over the short term — studies performed by the chemical company. For those of us who live here then there’s always satire.

Thank goodness it’s Friday that at least gives me something I can be thankful about.

/Disclosure: Opinions are my own and this information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes./

 “Kanga did it,” or Blaming others does not get the hallway repainted

Subtitle: Hashtag RecordICouldBreak: “The Little Red Caboose,” (goes chug, chug)

Sub-Subtitle: Secrets from a Dysfunctional Family with Poor Communication Skills

When I was young, around four years old, a mystery occurred in my family. We had a long hallway running down the middle of a ranch style house, a hallway maybe 20 to 25 feet long, with at least one 12 foot stretch that had no doorways breaking up the wall. One morning, this long expanse of beige wall suddenly had large swirling swirls of color swirling all the way down the hallway, The swirls didn’t go all the way up the wall, they were about three feet in diameter swirling circles of color.

My mother was upset.

She demanded to know who had decorated the hall.

No one was confessing.

Just wait until your father comes home,” might have been said. I’m not sure.

Eventually my younger sister volunteered the sad news that “Kanga did it.”

Now you can’t pull the wool over this (formerly) four year-old’s eyes. Her stuffed Kanga was only about a foot or two tall, not three feet tall, and there was the absence of opposable thumbs, and furthermore, Kanga was the mother figure from the children’s book series called “Winnie the Pooh,” and I knew Kanga would never have drawn on the walls.

Now my mother probably managed to figure these facts out for herself but arguing with a two year old about facts is a challenge that not everyone can handle with equal parenting skills. There was never an admission of guilt that I can recall.

The hallway had to be repainted.

The story lived on in family lore and tended to surface whenever a mystery occurred –- “Kanga did it.”

Now I told that story to tell another, with the PSA warning, do not try to tell anecdotes in 140 characters or less, unless it is a very, very, very short anecdote.

A few days ago on the social media platform, Twitter, a hashtag game topic was trending that caught my attention: # RecordICouldBreak. Now it was obvious that the theme was about setting sporting event or world records, or Ripley Believe It or Not type records, but my immediate thought was regarding an alternative meaning of the word record. In the old days (lol), music was recorded on plastic discs with sound imbedded in grooves which a sensitive needle could bump over and transform back into sound when spun on the appropriate piece of equipment. These discs were called records and were played on record players. Though archaic at this point music records do still exist and still have a fan base as the sound quality is slightly different than from CDs or iPods and there is still a lot of music that hasn’t been transferred from the older originally  recorded forms to the more modern digital forms of music.

So back to the point, we sisters had a little portable record player and a few records specially made for it, and my younger sister would play the song, “Little Red Caboose,” over and over and over and over and over again. It became excrutiating, tortured ears and tortured brain cells.

The record disappeared.

She was devastated.

I rejoiced.

But, you can’t pull the wool over this (formerly) six year old’s eyes. That record rarely left the little record player and my younger sister was rarely without either the record or the portable record player – how could the record just disappear?

I think my mother may have disappeared hidden it. The record did eventually turn up again, and by that point in time my sister had lost interest in the song. The record got played but not repeatedly.

Sounds and the sound of silence were important to both of my parents, but more so to my father. Like fingernails on a chalkboard can be painful, too much rambunctiousness from the children seemed to be painful to him. Classical music was usually what was playing in the background while I was growing up. He watched television but in a way that I eventually learned was quite unusual. He would watch sports with the sound off and ballet and nature documentaries with the sound on.

I think I came to equate sports and ballet as very similar types of events – both involved players running around in odd costumes but ballet had better music and golf had the funniest costumes.

Later in life I learned that sports and ballet are not viewed quite the same by the majority of the population. I also learned just how long football season lasts – too long in my opinion. The sound is jarring and frequently has a negative tone.

I think my father and I are somewhere on the autistic spectrum.

I don’t like the modern CGI films and special effects which seem as violent to my eyes and brain as strobe lights – which cause migraines for me. I learned to shut my eyes at concerts that have bright light shows. To my eyes and brain, the modern special effects and enhanced photography is too bright and too 3-D compared to the gentleness or awesomeness of actual nature.

Come to find out, I prefer those nature documentaries from the 70s that my father watched and which seemed so boring at the time. Ballet specials weren’t available very often on the two or three television channels that our TV set received compared to nature documentaries or other types of sporting events. So I grew up thinking that sound was an optional choice when watching TV. We didn’t even have a working TV set for a few years of my youth and when we did have one, we children were each allowed to pick out one show to watch per day after school and then we were expected to go do other things like play outside or do homework. We also had to sit several feet away from the TV set – in case there were invisible TV radiation bugs coming out of the (new-fangled invention) set.

Come to find out, excess TV viewing during childhood may be unhealthy due to an overstimulation of the dopamine receptors of the brain. Excess TV viewing during childhood is associated with an increased risk for developing behavior problems such as increased attention and aggression. [2] The rapid changing visual images and rapid music and chatter may be causing the brain to become over-stimulated and to then crave increased stimulation all the time.

So to make a long double story short, I don’t like the song “The Little Red Caboose,” – like fingernails on a chalkboard, and if given the opportunity I might enjoy breaking that record. (But let’s keep that a secret from my little sister. – No, I’m joking, she would laugh.)

And if my name were Aesop, the moral of the double story might be that open communication may be healthier for children than silence, or denial of the truth, or turning denial of the truth into a family joke.

Or it might be that taking personal responsibility for one’s actions is more important than maintaining silence.

Kanga didn’t really swirl huge swirls of color down the hallway – I’m pretty sure about that, but maybe the record did get temporarily lost, just color me skeptic.

My mother’s feelings were hurt when I tried to talk to her about family dysfunction a few years ago.The word dysfunction is possibly too strong a word. We had a wonderful childhood in many ways and a very functional household overall. She was an extremely smart and effective mother who taught us many household skills and creative art techniques, but effective social interaction wasn’t something she grew up with either, so how could she have been expected to pass on something she hadn’t learned as a child either? (My dad is unique, communication as a mechanical engineer is at a level that doesn’t apply to a discussion about effective social communication. Nuff said.)

Silence may be golden, especially for autistic ears and brains, but truth and taking personal responsibility can also be healing.

The real moral of the double story might be that ideally children shouldn’t be too afraid of their parents to tell the truth or to share other concerns with them.

  1. Some tips on effective parenting communication is available in a pdf handout from the center for Effective Parenting, Department of Pediatrics of the University of Arkansas Medical Sciences, Parent/Child Communication, by Kristen Zolton, M.A. and Nicholas Long, Ph.D.: [http://www.parenting-ed.org/handouts/communication-parent%20to%20child.pdf] The examples given in the section listing negative styles of communication suggests that my family stories may have involved “Dwelling on the past,” “Putting children down,” through the ridicule of turning a toddler event into a family joke, and “Lying,” about the disappeared record, and “Denying children’s feelings,” by not talking about the disappearance of the record, and possibly “Using threats,” – wait until your father comes home – and then what? He’ll interrogate Kanga? That type of threat turns dad into a scary ogre type of person.
  2. The American Pediatric Association recommends no television viewing for children under age two and a limit of two hours per day for children older than age two. Longer than two hours of television viewing per day between the age of 2 1/2 to 5 1/2 has been associated with fewer social skills and increased attention and aggression problems. They also recommend not having a television in the child’s bedroom or allowing them to fall asleep with the television as it has been associated with sleep problems. Too Much TV Linked to Behavior Problems, More Than 2 Hours of Television a Day Harms Children’s Social Skills, Study Shows, by Jennifer Warner, WebMD Health News, Oct. 1, 2007,[http://www.webmd.com/parenting/news/20071001/too-much-tv-linked-behavior-problems]

Additional note:

Other valuable lessons I learned from my parents:

  • You win some and you lose some in the game of life. Learn from the lessons and keep showing up for the next round of the game, as long as life allows.
  • Reduce, Reuse, Recycle.” — I would never break a record, not even The Little Red Caboose. I would donate things that I no longer wanted to a resale shop.

/Disclaimer: This information is provided for educational purposes within the guidelines of fair use. While I am a Registered Dietitian this information is not intended to provide individual health guidance. Please see a health professional for individual health care purposes./

 

 

Books about thinking and non-verbal behavior patterns

Following a quotation from one book led me to an interesting book about creativity that was inspired by the author Arthur Koestler. He wrote fiction and non-fiction works. The book “Astride the Two Cultures, Arthur Koestler at 70,”(1976), is a collection of essays by a variety of authors. The title refers to the two cultures of art and science -or fiction and non-fiction. The various authors explore the theme of creativity and how both artists and scientists may share creative thought processes and the idea is also explored that creativity in science and art may frequently involve non-verbal insights which then need to be translated into words or chemical symbols, or notes in a musical score.

Some of the contributing authors also touch on the idea that great thinkers build on the thoughts of other great thinkers. One of Arthur Koestler’s books, The Sleepwalkers, (1968, 2nd ed.),  focused on the life and work of the early astrophysicist Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) but Arthur Koestler ended up including information about the work of some of the thinkers who had proceeded or followed Kepler in the early study of our solar system. Kepler had the revolutionary idea that the planets revolve around the sun instead of the sun revolving around Earth. That sort of thinking at the time could get you thrown in jail as Galileo Galilei  (1564-1642) found but Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1726) may have been spared by keeping his ideas more private until after his death.  Ideas can lead to more ideas in the future – the tree of knowledge grows and blossoms over generations of thinkers.

  1. Editor: Harold Harris, Astride the Two Cultures, Arthur Koestler at 70, (Random House, 1976, New York)
  2. Thomas R. Blakeslee, Beyond the Conscious Mind: Unlocking the Secrets of the Self, (iUniverse, Inc. An Authors Guild BackinPrint.com Edition, 1996, 2004, Lincoln, NE) The section titled The Reptilian Brain, pages 212-215, quotes part of Paul MacLean’s list of 24 reptilian behavior patterns that was included in Astride the Two Cultures on page 196.
  3. Joseph Chilton Pearce, Magical Child Matures, (E. P. Dutton, Inc., 1985, New York) This book expands on his previous book, Magical Child, with the author’s interpretation of how our consciousness and thought processes might function within a triune brain of Paul MacLean’s theory. Chapter 3 of the book, titled: Bonding and Attachment, discusses how an infant’s birth and early breastfeeding experience may affect the newborn’s physical and mental development. Development of different stages of consciousness and behavior patterns throughout the lifespan are discussed in later chapters. Meditation and chakra energy centers are also discussed.
  4. Paul D. MacLean,  The Triune Brain in Evolution: Role in Paleocerebral Functions, (Plenum Press, 1990, New York) National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland, “written by the author in his capacity as an employee of the United States Government and is thus considered a work of the United States Government.”
  5. David Eagleman, Incognito: The Secret Lives of the Brain, (Pantheon Books, 2011, New York) Paul MacLean’s theory is described in a brief paragraph in this book on page 110 with the summary that the details of the theory have “fallen out of favor among neuroanatomists, but the heart of the idea survives: brains are made of competing subsystems.”

David Eagleman suggests in his book Incognito [5] that a dual processing mechanism of emotional and rational thinking is the currently accepted approach in the field of neuroanatomy rather than the triune theory suggested by Paul MacLean. While the details of neuroanatomy may be out of date in his book, The Triune Brain in Evolution, [4], the observations of animal behavior presented in his work seems timeless – or priceless as animal species become extinct or lose their native habitats to encroaching civilization or other invasive species. Paul MacLean’s book with 579 pages of text and 55 pages of bibliography is not written for the average reader but it is a fascinating compilation of over a century of research and observations about animal and human behavior. Knowledge grows as it passes from one thinker to the next – Kepler probably didn’t get every detail of astrophysics right but Galileo and Newton were there to fill in more details and other thinkers have followed along since.

Non-verbal communication is my first language – English was my second language starting around age two and a half. Paul MacLean’s theory does include a basic premise that the brain includes a dual processing mechanism of non-verbal and verbal thinking and behavior patterns – and that the various areas of the brain aren’t always in good communication with each other. David Eagleman’s book Incognito mentioned research that has used the term zombie brain patterns and alien hand syndrome but the term software was also used. There are no aliens in alien hand syndrome. If the connection between the right and left hemispheres of the brain is damaged than the person loses normal control of one hand. The left hemisphere controls the right hand and the right hemisphere controls the left hand – no aliens though. [5, page 131-132] I personally am more comfortable with the idea that my brain – or hardware – may come pre-loaded with some innate survival behavior patterns – or software -than that my brain has zombie or alien thought processes.

Hunger is a biological feeling rather than an emotion in the typical sense of the word. Foraging is a survival behavior pattern that is seen in many species including humans – think of gathering wild berries in season or of browsing all the stores during the holiday season looking for the best deals. Frogs will flick their tongues out to capture a fly when they sense rapid movement of a small object and they will leap away when they sense movement of a large object, [5]  – does that mean frogs have zombie brain patterns? – or does that mean they have survival behavior patterns which can occur more rapidly than verbal thinking typically requires?

Good athletes practice so much that their bodies respond to the fast pace of the sport faster than conscious thought – rational, verbal analysis of a play can inhibit the player.

If you would rather not think about zombies, aliens, or frogs, then Dialectical Behavior Therapy is a currently accepted strategy in the field of mental health care that was first developed by Marsha Linehan in 1993 (1997, 2001) to help individuals gain better understanding and acceptance of their non-verbal and verbal thoughts, motives, and behaviors; and to develop more effective strategies for coping  with strong emotions; and for improving communication with others and with oneself. It can be difficult to let others know what your concerns are if you aren’t able to put words to your feelings.

Workbooks are available based on the DBT techniques which can be used individually or with a trained clinician; one example is: “The Dialectical Behavior Therapy Skills Workbook: Practical DBT Exercises for Learning Mindfulness, Interpersonal Effectiveness, Emotion Regulation & Distress Tolerance,” by Matthew McKay, Ph.D, Jeffrey C. Wood, Psy. D, and Jeffrey Brantley, MD, (New Harbinger Publications, Inc., 2007, Oakland, CA). [6]

If you like thinking about thinking or about squirrel monkeys, Komodo lizards and ethology then read on. We are told by Paul MacLean in The Triune Brain in Evolution that the word ethology became popularly known in the 1920s – I had to look it up, so it may not have remained popular. According to The New Oxford American Dictionary (Oxford University Press, 2001, New York) ethology is “the science of animal behavior,” or “the study of human behavior and social organization from a biological perspective.” There are peer reviewed journals for the topic such as the Journal of Ethology so the science of animal behavior is still of interest to some researchers.

To jump ahead to page 199 of The Triune Brain in Evolution the curious reader can learn that “Squirrel monkeys commonly roll food pellets or grapes on the tip of their tails.” Sadly we then learn that damaging a specific area of the brain will disrupt the ability. This bit of animal trivia is cute but not too relevant to humans off the basketball court. However many hours of watching Komodo lizards and other animals in their native habitats led to a list of behavior patterns that are seen in many species; the behavior patterns like the frog catching a fly or avoiding a predator may help support survival of the individual or the group. Our non-verbal brainstem and limbic areas of the brain may lead us into performing behavior patterns that our verbal mind may then try to rationalize in words – do we go to every store during the holiday rush in order to get the best deal or to enjoy the holiday spirit? – or because our non-verbal self is energized by the thrill of foraging for the best deal?

Non-verbal behavior patterns that may be based in activity from the brainstem area are listed on page 100, The Triune Brain in Evolution. (This area of the brain is rich in the neurotransmitter dopamine so conditions, substances, or stages of life that affect dopamine levels may also affect the likelihood of these behaviors occurring.) Table 6-1. Special Forms of Basic Behavior

  1. Selection and preparation of homesite
  2. Establishment of territory
  3. Use of home range
  4. Showing place preferences
  5. Trail making
  6. Marking of territory
  7. Patrolling territory
  8. Ritualistic display in defense of territory, commonly involving the use of coloration and adornments
  9. Formalized intraspecific fighting in defense of territory
  10. Triumphal display in successful defense
  11. Assumption of distinctive postures and coloration in signaling surrender
  12. Use of defecation posts (or areas away from sleeping areas and trails)
  13. Foraging
  14. Hunting
  15. Homing
  16. Hoarding
  17. Formation of social groups
  18. Establishment of social hierarchy by ritualistic display and other means
  19. Greeting
  20. Grooming
  21. Courtship, with displays using coloration and adornments
  22. Mating
  23. Breeding and, in isolated instances (in reptilian species), attending offspring
  24. Flocking
  25. Migration

[4]- Paul D. MacLean,  The Triune Brain in Evolution: Role in Paleocerebral Functions, (Plenum Press, 1990, New York) National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

The limbic area of the brain is associated with several non-verbal behavior patterns having to do with bonding and caring for offspring.

Six types of general behaviors have also been observed in many species that may occur as part of the other behavior patterns.

  • From page 143, Table 10-1. General (“Interoperative”) Forms of Basic Behavior: 1) Routinizing, 2) Isopraxic, 3) Tropistic, 4) Repetitious, 5) Reenactment, 6) Deceptive.[4]- Paul D. MacLean,  The Triune Brain in Evolution: Role in Paleocerebral Functions, (Plenum Press, 1990, New York) National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Maryland.

There is a tendency to like following routines, 1) routinizing, and repeating usual behavior patterns, 4) repetitious. 2) Isopraxic behavior is the tendency to behave the same way as other members in a group. 3) Tropistic (from the Greek word tropos which means “a turning,” page 145) is used in biology to describe behaviors that seem to be elicited or “turned” on or off by an external signal such as the colorful pattern seen on another member of the species – the same bright color might elicit the response even if it seen on an inanimate object instead of another member of the species. 5) Reenactment is used to describe the repetition of a more complex series of behaviors than the typical routine. The more complex route might have been life saving once and it then may have became part of the daily routine even though the danger was no longer present. 6) Deceptive behavior has been observed by Komodo lizards when they hunt deer. The large lizards will hide along the trails used by deer and wait for the deer to happen along – no chasing necessary.

June 26, 2015 Additional Note: I was having trouble saving the draft a few days ago so I went ahead and published the post instead. The zombie behavior patterns described in frogs in an earlier paragraph and in the book Incognito  [5] might also be described as a tropistic behavior. [4, page 145] The frogs instinctively respond to a small rapid motion with a flick of their tongue to try to catch prey – turning towards the prey – and they respond to a large motion by hopping away to avoid a predator – turning away from danger. Having tropistic instincts seems like a more realistic and helpful description to me. I found all of the books that I listed helpful in different ways, as different perspectives, and I was disappointed to find only limited information available online about the triune brain theory – a brief overview of the basic theory is available in several places but I didn’t find the list of behavior patterns anywhere else online. The details of neuroanatomy is a rapidly changing field but basic animal behavior patterns may show repetition because our basic anatomy and DNA is very similar across many lifeforms.

/Disclosure: This information is presented for educational purposes within fair use and material provided within a publication of the U.S. government./